Sewing clay
Clothing & wearables
Tabletop mini "Zen gardens"
Notepads (making your own)
Melting, softening, or shrinking plastics
...completely melting
...slumping, then re-shaping or cutting (old records, CDs, etc)
...shrinking plastics (sheets,bottles, cups, etc.)
Marbles, etc.. & acrylic rounds & hemispheres & pebbles
........ "aquarium" beads + more on glass pebbles,etc
.........cracked marbles & pebbles cubes (glass or plastic) ..& misc.
Marbling ("floating" inks, paints, shaving foam, etc, on mediums, to create patterns)
Putting your photos online
...Photoediting software (improving pic quality, saving for Web, re-sizing, avatars, etc.)
...Websites for sharing your photos websites (some allow direct-linking)
......Google ...Yahoo member ...blogs ...yahoogroups
......your ISP ...special websites (Tripod,etc.) ...your own domain
...Misc. info
Men in polymer clay
....(temporary ... to be finished later)



Sewing by hand, holes can be created in raw or baked sheets of clay.
...Karen Mitchell's lesson re whipstitching through small punched holes to connect the sides of liquid clay-impregnated fabric (with transfer on it) ...using 6 strands of embroidery floss (to make small purse
...see also info on sewing seedbeads, or pearls or other beads onto clay in Mixed Media > Beads,Seedbeads

Sewing with a machine:

Judy's lesson on making as soft eyeglass case
...she sews through 2 sheets of # 6 baked clay with long stitch length (1/8") at tension 2
...she says to use a "machine wh. will sew denim," so this may mean she uses a "denim needle?" (sharp and triangular) or just that the machine is reasonably strong?
....for the eyeglasses case: before sewing around 3 sides of the 2 clay rectangles, she had "glued" microfleece onto each interior side with liquid clay (but not on the 1/8" margin to be sewed) hold the thread, to remove any marks from the sewing machine, and to look more supple, she then coated one entire side (with liquid clay, buffs off the excess and bakes 5 min... then does same on other side),1789,HGTV_3236_2219519,00.html

...can also sew through liquid clay films (with transfers or without)
..... though some brands like Kato and Fimo might be a little stickier at first (so could sew on or between a sheet of paper?)
.....might also depend on thickness of baked sheet of liquid clay, or the needle used in machine? ("jeans" needle needed for some?)

(baked) FABRIC impregnanted with translucent clay or liquid clay or white glue
...afer fabric is soaked or coated with one of these, the baked sheets can be sewn together
....Shelly C's lesson on attaching clay and fabric with just a pasta machine; then you can cut the fabric-clay sheet into any pattern shapes needed with scissors
....but if you want to adhere fabric to already-cured clay, I would suggest Beacon's Fabric Tac (a washable fabric glue --just a more flexible white glue?). I've used it for years with great success. Cindy

... if you butt together 2 fabric-covered clay sheets, their edge sides will bond together
.... (sewing seams on 2 fabric covered clay sheets, which are laid on top of each other)....the clay on the back bonds with other clay making the sewing of the seams faster. Karen R.

For all info on making "clay-fabric, " see see Mixing Media > Fabric


TO BE COMPLETED ...list of craftster purse tutorials in Misc-Temp

soft and/or flexible purses

"clay-fabric" can be created for making purses, totebags, etc., in various ways:
...fabric embedded with clay ...or fabric embedded with liquid clay
.......fabric "decoupaged" onto solid clay with liquid clay
...these clay-fabrics
can be sewn too
(for all info on making clay fabric, look in Mixed Media > Fabric)

Karen Mitchell's lesson on small flap purse made with liquid clay-impregnated fabric (with transfer on it) ...she whipstitched through small punched holes to connect the sides, using 6 strands of embroidery floss,1789,HGTV_3227_3150845,00.html

Jody Bishel's tambor purses have flexible "roll top" flaps for closure (...purse bottoms are formed over a removable rock armature though)
.....flap section is made flexible by laying a number of baked polymer strips onto fabric soaked with liquid clay... then baking
......many narrow strips of clay are used where the flap will actually flip over, but one larger "strip" (rounded along the bottom edge) is used for the last piece which will lay on the front side of the purse

......Jody's directions are in in Feb 2001 Bead & Button mag.... technique also in the book Polymer Clay: Exploring New Techniques & New Materials
......this is a great technique which can be used for a lot of other things as well, such as earrings or bracelets, etc. DottyinCA

for sewing on clay or sewing clay pieces together, also see above in Sewing

Naamaza's flexible tote purse made from 9 tiles of polmer clay, held together with jute? twine ... each tile has 16 holes and twine is run through each one 3 times... one row of crochet? between each?

"hard" purses (not sewn)

polymer purses made by Lisa Pavelka use various techniques (covering, using hard shell metal purse forms, metal closure frames, minaudieres (tiny evening bags), etc
Lisa Pavelka's lesson on covering and/or embellishing a purse form (....or could strip an old bag and use... casual or evening bag),,HGTV_3239_1397691,00.html

Donna Kato's hard purses with transfers, etc.

Flo's 2 clay-covered cigar box purses, with framed photo transfers, etc., on top... lined inside

existing purses (with onlaid embellishments, coverings, etc.)
you can buy old, used purses and decorate them with polymer clay.. DottyinCA
...or buy purse frames, or handles, etc., at thrift stores

metal purse frame ....or wood or bamboo handle frames can attach clay (or liquid clay embedded fabric, etc.) to purchased or made "frame"
...or buy an old purse from a thrift shop or garage sale, then remove everything but the frame, or handle, etc.

...purses can be made by "covering" something else ... the form/armature can be removed after baking, or it can be left in

aluminum foil (compacted)... or a large rock

..."rock purses" use either a real rock or a compacted aluminum foil form as a removable armature
......larger rocks are used as forms for regular-size "purses," whereas smaller rocks are used to make rock purse vessel "pendants" (openable containers)

Kathleen Dustin was the originator of these hard-sided, "rock vessel" purses, as well as the whole covering-then-cutting-off technique (click on each) ...her evening bags are stunning!
...she uses various shapes for her armatures ...has used compacted aluminum foil for most of her later armature forms
....she uses (double thickness?) Sculpey III clay as her base layer because it's stiff (though brittle) after baking ...bakes... later she covers with Premo part of many of her purses, Kathleen Dustin often uses a section of baked white Sculpey, then colors it with Prisma colored pencils (or later may have been transferring a copy of her on)... bakes, and covers with a final layer of very thin Sculpey III translucent clay, sometimes also with translucent-opaque cane slices, etc. (a technique I believe she introduced with these purses)
......(for more info on techniques, see ...Paints
>Colored Pencils... Tranluscents >Thin Sheets... Canes-Instr >Translucent Canes) (thinner purse) (semi-heart shaped purse)

I took Kathy's (Dustin) class in making a purse... she is the one who started people doing rock purses (and amulets.)
...she told us that she found a nice smooth rock a little smaller than the purse she wanted to make
...she covered it with a (two layers of) base clay... and then added her embellishments (cane work, sculpting, backfilling etc) was baked, then cut open.... (her faces were done by hand). Dotty in CA ....(with a few translucent canes over the top)

(lesson) Ok all you purse makers, I will try to translate my notes from Kathleen Dustin's Purse class (later purses a bit diff for inside?).
...We used foil as the core, but a rock would work....
...Put two sheets of the clay (#'s 1 & 4) over rock or foil ... can use scrap, or a different colors for the layers ...I think she used a gold layer to be the inside of the purse... or you can use white Sculpey on the outside if you want to draw on the purse with pencils, drawings, etc) ....(use metallic powder or cornstarch as a release)
...Use a pin tool to put holes in clay before you bake it the first time... get all the air bubbles out. .... Bake.
(a little out of order??... score twice?... 2 layers or 2 + 1 layers?)
To cover the baked clay form: ...cut pattern of purse from clay sheet ....put clay on one side, then the other
...Score where you are going to cut lid. ...You may have to reslit side and put it back together. You can use liquid clay to adhere the clay.. Smooth the seams. ... Cut the top. ....Smooth inside seams.
...Find something to bake on so the shape won't change (support). ... Bake 45 min.
...After baking - decorate ...layers of transparent canes and transparent clays look great over other canes, drawings, transfers, etc
...Put a (interior?) rim on inside of bottom half: Trim down edge by beveling bottom part of purse. Do not cut, just press to bevel. Heat with heat gun to soften, then bevel to half the size. This is a little confusing here, but I think what you are doing is getting the lid to fit on the bottom ???
...Lid: heat with heat gun and trim a little bit... Add a twisted piece of clay around (rim?) bottom of the lid. Use liquid sculpey to adhere. You may have to use super glue if you don't have liquid sculpey. I think this lets the lid fit over the bottom.
...Bake again with the trim. ...Put tabs on the inside with liquid sculpey. (Ok Marty, help me with this. I know they go on the inside, but do they go on before you bake again. I am confused about this. I cannot remember. I guess they are for the handle?).. . .DWClark1

...see also Jody B's "tambour" purses make over rock forms just below
...see also papier mache forms just below, which could be treated this way?

Valerie H's purses and pouches made from clay (poof type, over armature?)

...Jody B's lunchbox purse (round with flat bottom) newest purses are created by covering metal lunchboxes of various shapes. Macy (click on Clayations, then on Purses)
...blank regular size, and also smaller size, lunchboxes can often be found in craft stores... or already-painted ones can be covered

...Desiree's heart purse made over an Altoid tin (click on photo for more)
...someone covered a bandaid box and added a long strap as well
see Covering > Metal for Altoid box made into "suitcase" for doll with leather strap handle...and more on covering metal

...bare wood or acrylic-painted boxes ....(for example, small ones from Michaels with lids and clasps, etc.)
...or larger ones

(wood or pasteboard) cigar boxes or pencil boxes could be covered to make purses
LaTrisha's lesson on wood cigar box purse,1789,HGTV_3227_3285338,00.html

... many cigar box purses
(...see Covering > Wood or Paper/Cardstock/Papier Mache for more on covering these materials)

paper, cardstock, papier mache
there are papier mache purse forms you can purchase that can be covered with polymer clay
...or buy any shape of papier mache form, then cut part of it away ....and cover
......or treat a papier mache form like a rock purse above, and cover whole form, cutting apart after baking to remove form
........or could cover form partially, then soak out papier mache form
...large matchboxes could be adapted from matchbox amulets to make purses... see my old article in Polyzine. Marty
...I just finished making a bunch of matchbox evening bags using the large matchboxes (these are part of the "set decoration" for my small matchbox amulet's that I demonstrated on the DIY channel. who?

hardback books
...(check out thrift stores for cheap hardback books of the size you want for making a "book purse")
.... remove the pages from a hardback book with an Xacto knife, making one cut in front and one in back (you aren't cutting through all the pages, just the paper holding the pages to the book... lift out pages as a unit)
...cover front, or front-back, or front-back-spine with clay
(bake clay with purse if book bakable, or glue on as baked veneer sheet of clay with epoxy or E-6000?)... or just add baked clay embellishments, mixed media, etc.
....make a triangular "gusset" (flat piece which folds back into bag when purse closes) for each side of the purse (with fabric or anything else flexible --fabric embedded with liquid clay, vinyl, felt, etc.)... this is what holds the front and back of book together above the spine, but still allows them to expand somewhat when the purse is opened
....bottom of triangle should be same width as spine-binding.
...sides of triangle should be the same as short sides of book covers (but add an inch or so all around to fold back raw edge or to be tab for gluing in)
.....liner ... line purse if you want, with fabric same size as whole open book (
sew pocket, etc on liner, if want) gussets to liner ... glue in liner on interior edges of covers
.....handles ...can buy, or make your own:
......(flexible) from fabric, beads on wire, braided cording, rope, leather, chain.... (stiff) ones from wood, clay, metal, or any funky thing you can think of....) attach handles, can drill holes in purse and attach handles with various kinds of hardware,cording,beads,etc.(can use grommets or eyelets, if want, to decoate or strengthen holes ... or use a strong glue if purse contents won't be heavy?... or attach or tie around or on somehow...
.....closure... no closure needed, or could use stiff, flexible, stretchy, or weighted ones
..Caitlin's lesson on making book purse, with component fabric pieces, and hard bottom support inside,,HGTV_3227_3661732,00.html
..more of Caitlin's book purses
..lesson, with more fabric gone?
(not necessarily polymer book purses)

... (middle of page)

...(purses made from books & magazines)... metal corners are used on the corners of some of the books (available at frame dept. of craft store)book purses

Larger vessels?

other purses

Barbara McGuire's unusual "purse" (or could be just a box) made by covering an upside down, bare wire lampshade form with leather, then covering the bulb-holder wire loops with a large clay finial (she uses Crafter's Pick Ultimate Tacky Glue with leather),1789,HGTV_3352_1399717,00.html

....suggestion for getting leather really cheap: look in thrift stores (e.g. Goodwill) for old coats, vests, etc., and then cut them up. You'd be surprised what you can buy for $5! Suzanne

tiny purses for pins or other jewelry, dangles, embellishment, etc.
....Susan Terry's at Bead Ranch

....Debbie Anderson (click on Wearable Art)
....Linda Hicks
makes her (1 x 2") purse from the distorted ends of her canes ... also uses telephone & artistic wire, interfer. powders,rubber stamps, beads,1983,HGTV_3236_2740252_ARTICLE-DETAIL-PRINT,00.html (pins, on check-border cards)


many lessons & examples of various types of bags & purses (for inspiration --not polymer)

SUPPLIERS of purse parts

more HANDLES ...I've braided a clay handle for a purse with a mixture of one part Bake and Bend clay to one part Premo.
......I also use silk thread on my Kumihimo loom to make my own coordinating cords for the purses.Patty B.

for people, not mini figures

vests, etc.

Xtine's (Christine's) vest at Arrowmont was many connected flat polymer tiles (3x3"? each) .....I think they were whip-stitched together with (thin ropes of Bake and Bend) Sculpey Flex clay but not sure --could maybe use crochet cotton instead? Helen P. ...

...There is a Challah cover by Valerie Kantor in my book that was made with squares (size?) of polymer and jump rings, and I can tell you Valerie's story of how long it took her to do the covering with all those rings is off-putting. :-) Jacqueline
...I recall the "credit card dress" also at the Academy Awards .. it was made of American Express credit cards, which were linked with jump rings at each corner and it seemed to be flexible enough to bend in the right places.Kay

small or flattish beads could be used too, connected like a bead curtain in some kind of matrix, grid or shape
--those with holes could be strung or woven onto cording of various types or onto strands (round or flat) of extruded flexible polymer clay, or be glued into short lengths of one of those, etc
.... should be lots of ways to connect them

fabric could be covered or partly covered with glued-on or sewed-on slices, or with small beads, or small sheets of patterned clay, etc.
... for gluing, use liquid clay or a white glue intended for fabric... sewing could be done in various ways --like buttons, or at edges, or overcast, or tacked down with small bead as stopper, etc., etc.)
...thin cane slices could overlap like scales
........a flexible fabric of scales could be created by bending back individual scale slices at top, then having the back of that "tab" glued onto fabric with liquid clay (in rows)

a vest could be clay only up to the seams, then it would be possible to sew the shoulder and side seams afterward. Judi
....clay can be sewn too (see above in Purses)

we've been playing around with vest ideas:
1 You could (use liquid clay to make regular fabric flexible) ...or do something like baking (lightweight) organza embedded with liquid polymer clay, possibly leaving seam allowances unclayed, maybe making a few extra pattern pieces instead of darts at the shoulder.
2. you could make the entire vest of (translucent) pockets, and put a piece of clay in each pocket --I've seen this with window screen mesh, organza, or polyvinyl --shower curtain material
(....or the pockets could be liquid clay decals --see just below)
3. you could use one of those button puches that attaches buttons with a little piece of plastic, and attach the clay pieces that way ...or use those guns that attach price tags with plastic (quilters use 'em for basting layers together) and have little flopping pieces of pc (I personally like this the best--you would look sort of fluttery, in my mind....) Maureen

transfers onto clay or liquid clay (even freestanding decals), might be possibilities too

could also combine various of these methods in one vest, or just parts of a vest could be created this way


KimK's "belt" of Celtic tiles has hinges to hold them together (2 tubes attached to one side of each tile, one center tube attached to other side, which interlock... she used wire threaded through each 3-tube hinge to to hold tiles together

see more on sewing, etc, above in Purses for more on fabric and liquid clay, plus embellishments on clothes (fabric yoyo's... fabric bracelets & chokers), see Mixing Media > Fabric
...see tea bag folding in Sheets of Pattern
> Origami & Folding

...(for clothing for sculpts and miniatures, see Sculpting-Bodies > Clothing)

tabletop mini ZEN GARDENS
.......(sandboxes for mini-scenes or for relaxation/meditation")

(The original full size "Zen gardens" are for creating a feeling of calm, and stress relief --whether they're simply gazed upon, or when "raking" them in an active kind of "meditation")

However, we can create a mini version of the same idea ... then use it for calming, or for mini-scenes, or for just anything.

my mini Zen garden scenes using a frame, another a lg clay saucer...various natural and found items, rakes
Carol Duvall's lesson using a purchased shadow box with wide lip ... glue used around inside of bottom to keep sand from leaking ...rake made by gluing escutcheon nails in drilled holes of a popscicle stick,,HGTV_3352_1958352,00.html

Desiree took up the monthly exploration theme to make a mini zen garden with polymer items
...she made faux rocks, snail, and fancy rake... hers uses a rough-wood frame for the container, and regular sand
Sandfancier used parts of bodies sticking up out of sand, brightly colored sands, a meditating monk rocks/shells/marbles
kids create something similar for a scene (Campfire Friends Table Top Scene)

Each tabletop version of a Zen garden is usually comprised of a shallow tray of fine sand (or other filler) symbolizing the empty mind, and at least a few small rocks & 1 rake
...the basic idea is to doodle in the sand with the rake, creating patterns
...and/or to move the little objects around into different positions

FILLER .....sand.... play sand from the craft store is good (comes in various colors)... (sand from the beach or playground is larger grain)
...........salt (very white slightly sparkly...good for snow and xmas scenes)... sugar (if you don't have ants--very white and slighter finer than salt)
...if you don't want to create fine patterns in the sand, then or other things could be used (but in that case, make your "rake" tines farther apart)
rice (short or long grain)... grains (couscous,etc)....seeds (sesame,etc) ... spices for fragrance (cumin seed, fenugreek) ... dried beans ... seed beads ....gravel or fish gravel ...even small bits of tan bark for a natural look avoid having to use too much sand, any deep containerscan be filled up just partway with something solid or closed (or rocks in a baggie, etc.) before adding the sand on top

TOOLS:....rakes (or forks, sticks, etc.) are dragged across the sand to make patterns in it
...some of my rake possibilities, plus one of Desiree's
rake by eternallyeve ...the 5 bent tines made with 5 thick wires, separated and held in place by weaving thinner wire over and under the back end of those wires in several rows before polymer-covered handle begins
.........her rake handle is long and slender (a continuation of the 5 wires? or another armature?)
.....rake options ..... width and separation of the tines of the rakes will make different effects (may need to vary by the fineness of the grit of sand, etc. you're using though) ......can tape together several toothpicks or other rods or use spacers between them
... (adding a sun or indoor light from one side only, will intensify the drag lines by making a bit of shadow beside each line)...
other dragging tools: anything can be used, even single "tines"... the ends of paintbrushes work well, dull pencils, small dowels, etc.
.....the side of a credit card or index card can be used to push up long "dunes"... or rows of dunes
....using a shovel, or pouring from a spoon can create hills and valleys ..., etc., can also be used to make softly round impressions in the sand, which can be created in patterns
...or rake in concentric swirls to resemble the way water looks around the edges of stones and islands (this is the traditional way)
...the sand surface can be smoothed out after raking without disturbing the items on it by tapping the whole container a bit, or by very lightly dragging an edge of paper --or looped piece of paper over it (the width of the paper should be narrow enough to fit between your items though).. a large soft paintbrush can work too
...trowel and bucket

ITEMS: ....... make or find all kinds of little things to place in the filler
.....these can be moved around in random ways or patterns ..... or little scenes can be created
.....don't use any natural materials or other things with small, loose bits (they can "dirty" the sand, and be hard to remove (try various meshes or even fabrics to screen the sand... or use a Chinese wire mesh skimmer)
....the items can sit on the sand, nestle into it, or even have prongs or stands, etc., which go under the sand to stabilize the item

Items could be made from polymer clay, natural materials.... or just anything at all:
........small or large, smooth or rough rocks... could also have large rocks or flat rocks placed upright... rock caves (aquarium store) or coral
........various natural and found items in my Zen gardens
........beads made from polymer clay or glass, metal
...... faux polymer materials of manhy kinds like stones or gemstones, stamped-antiqued flat faux rocks... petroglyphs.......hard spices (cinnamon sticks... nutmeg, etc.)
....... shells ...critters... figures, tiny statues (Buddha, etc.)
........all kinds of xmas or holiday decorations, etc (mini pinetrees.. tiny reindeer, snowmen,or other small figures)... miniatures from hobby store, etc.
........fake plants (silk or plastic, or plant bits cut from swags, etc.) .... twigs for bare trees .... real flowers, etc.....
........fences ....footbridges .... walkways (sheets of faux wood, or strips of corrugated cardboardfor fences).... freestanding "corners" or screens
........Nascar race cars, plus sections of roadway and rake, bu DresdenDarling for her mom
........fake water of various kinds could be created with polymer effects (see Faux-Many
> Water......), or clear casting resins, etc. ....when these "pieces" of water are partly buried in the sand, they should look real (see valleys below, for river "paths") ... "ponds" or "streams"
(....for all kinds of items to make for the sandboxes, see also .... Miniatures .... and Kids
>Scenes-Dioramas... and Houses-Structures) Zen garden photo shows a pagoda, hanging gong & malle
....tea light candle sitting in gray stone rock or just in a glass votive ... or a candle rock
....incense sticks in non-flammable holder ...e.g. tealights, rocks, incense holder, rake

....items could have a theme or not (doesn't have to have a Japanese theme though); could be xmas, Halloween, a particular hobby, etc
...items could be of personal interest to recipient, or things they can "re-connect with" or meditate on --don't have to be something associated with sand
...objects can have symbolic value, or not website shows has a Zen dinghy, where the shallow container of sand is boat-shaped, and each item has a meaning:
........"sand represents flowing water, sailboat (this boat is 2-D flat and just pushed into sand at its' bottom to keep upright) represents 'you,' lighthouse (flat) represents safety and illuminated direction, shells represent 'reefs,' and a seagull represents a seagull ... plus 2 different Zen garden rakes ....(symbolism of each item can be interpreted differently...relaxation through sensing the spirit of the beach, ocean or lake...")

CONTAINERS... for the sand can also be all kinds of boxes, etc.... or bowls, wide serving bowls , even large half-shells or planters, terra cotta saucers, cake or baking pans, or anything which has a reasonably wide surface at the top... some are made of slate...even the black TV dinner "plates" can be used (if using a double-item TV tray, the smaller section could be used for more sand and a candle in a small glass votive, etc.)... for large sand trays, see sand tray therapy below .frames (empty) of various kinds can be used for containers... remove backing parts & glass & then use only the frame (or shadow box frame)
...........glue a shallow box lid or a clear acrylic box frame to the bottom to hold the sand (may need to cut a lid down, or make a shallow "box" because frame size can be an issue)
...........or use something flat but sturdy like a piece of cardboard or matte board or masonite or thin wood, to the bottom of the opening
...........(frame may work best upside down).. be sure to extra-glue any joined areas well because fine sand can easily leak out if not!.
......could also make container from a closed box-and-lid or from a stiff cereal box, etc
......containers can have knobs or feet attached to the underside
.....cover any parts not to your liking with paint, decorative sticky papers, clay, etc
.......(simple) mom used a wooden box from an old travel checkers set... we added marbles, then she let me have a small appetizer fork .. yuckbite
...clear glass or plastic containers can be good, and large or small ... many of these would also control sand spill too (esp. those narrower at the top)
... things like an aquarium, fish bowl, clear plastic storage container, large brandy snifter fish bowl (Walmart, etc.), glass jars large or small, large wine glass (....some of the rakes would need to be straight though, rather than at 90 degree angle at end)
: ....also, a drawer or box would be handy to hold all the little accessories together and neat... it could be a separate container, attached to the sand unit or a sub-division beside the sand, or even a "matchbox" type drawer underneath the unit with a drawer in it, etc.
..these are sometimes sold as novelty gifts and called "executive sandboxes" (even toy stores) because they can be kept on the desktop of a "busy executive")
COVER:.... a cover would be a nice thing to have, particularly if it's clear... could just place one of those photo box "frames" over the whole thing to keep cats out, etc.?
...see lesson on portable mini Zen garden inside an Altoid box, with calming photo in lid, in Covering
> Metal .......other ideas for closeable containers might be pencil box, wood jewelry box

OTHER ideas
...if only a scant amount of sand is used, then when patterns are drawn in it, the bottom of the box will show through (causing the lines to be whatever color it is ... may want to use a very smooth surface under the sand to avoid a scratching sound)
........or .sheets of patterned or solid baked clay could be placed just under the sand surface so that when the rake is scraped through the sand, the clay will show through in patterns (maybe a Skiiner blend sheet ... think sgraffito)
..........looks like something similar is being done with one of the larger sand trays (colored paper placed under glass? --comes installed in tray?)
....mandala ...could use sets of similar baked cane slices, shapes, or non clay items (beads or anything) to create small mandalas...a calming activity (...see more on creating mandalas in Onlay > Uses)
.......or sand mandalas
... maze ...create a maze path with units of toothpicks ....or strips of index card or baked polymer strips which can be stood up in the filler like fences
...labyrinth... no dead ends... path is always from outside to center (could "walk" around the labyrinth with rake?)
.......finger labyrinth.... --could even lay down a string or yarn to follow
....Diane V. made a clay finger labryinth
...use a large tray of sand for kids or adults (...see just below in sand tray therapy)

"sand tray therapy" is another activity which is similar to this: ... wide & shallow sand trays are used, along with a many, many small items
...can be used as personal exploration... "What I value most about sand tray is that it releases something that's been inside me, and offers me valuable insights about what's going on beneath the surface of my life. It's a little like dreaming while I'm awake. The process is simply to arrange objects until the tray feels complete... As a form of personal expression, sand tray is similar to painting and other forms of art . . . sometimes I approach the tray with a particular issue in mind . . or to recreate a dream image, or deal with a conflict.." Alyce Barry ... she also often keeps the sand damp because then the objects stay in place more easily, and it's easier to form shapes and patterns with hands. used by some therapists (or anyone) with children (and adults) to analyze how participants express themselves through their choice and manipulation of objects in the trays... or to address feelings, thoughts, psychological health re things like traumas, grief or separation, emotional / physical / sexual abuse, learning disabilities, illness, addictions, mental illnesses, etc. .... participants are often invited to create a diorama (a story or miniature world) by arranging figures, animals, and other items in the sandtray. ... non-invasive method which works especially well with those who are young or have trouble comprehending and talking about difficult issues
...links from Google search using the phrase "sand tray therapy"
......(including places to buy the larger trays like .... take about 3 lbs? of sand
.........or buy a wide shallow tray intended for another purpose like photo developing, air filter washing, mixing cement, cat box, shallow drawer, etc.
........or make your own tray (from wood, etc., or find or cut down a suitable cardboard box..... could have leg blocks, or long legs if want)
.. examples of trays in use .
(outdoors) (adults, indoors)

REAL Zen gardens: (Jap.gardens are roughly divided into three categories: landscape gardens, tea gardens, and rock gardens)
Buddhism's contemplative form, Zen, created the original, truly Japanese, form of gardens known as karesansui - dry garden or rock garden
...the basic idea of real Japanese "Zen-type" gardens is to use very simple yet elegant shapes, patterns, etc... shouldn't be fussy or cluttered. Straight lines, curves, or simple forms, etc....anything which produces a feeling of serenity and restfulness (...but of course, we can do anything we want)...


a memo pad could be created from a ceramic tile, with feet added to the to the bottom (polymer or wood beads, corks, or drawer pulls --crystal, brass, etc.) Lindaa ...(could use polymer around edge too) way would be to stamp on tile with Fabrico ink --a picture, or the word "memo" ...bake 15 minutes
...could also add a small piece of velcro on the tile, and on the other side of the velcro stick a black erasable marker (used for white boards) and ta da!!! you have a memo pad to sit beside your phone for messages
.....btw, the tile erases just like white board, but the ink where you stamped doesn't come off--it is baked on. vbfll
...would a sheet of baked polymer clay erase like this too ??? especially if it's very slick from having been baked face down on glass? DB

(making the pads themselves... with padding compound & other glues)

Padding compound (padding cement) is the kind of "glue" that holds scratch pads together. is low in tensile strength so pages may be pulled off easily. … incredibly thick, like gesso & a little goes a very long way.... it is designed to be flexible when dry.
…some people use Elmers regular white glue (not their School glue) just fine, but it has more water than padding compound
....... it works really well.... on my first try though, the edges got all wobbly from the moisture in the glue, but then I moved the notepad right to the edge of the table and put the clamp board I was using right to the edge on top. With all the edges flush, that held the paper and kept it from ruffling sister (who once worked for a printing agency told me that they use PVA glue ("white glue")... carpenters use a strong version that's colored yellow. tinybits
..... I'll bet you could put acrylic paint in the glue and end up with colored edges. I might have to try that next.
...some people also use rubber cement, but it's not so great on the lungs and harder to apply evenly

Online sources for padding compound (it's usually available in red or white… or color your own with acrylic paint??) (also other pad making supplies)
Local sources...small quantities at stamp stores, from printer's supply store, or by the pint (quart, gallon) at some office supply stores (or have them gummed for you at office supply stores)

lessons: (simple lesson) (they make it sound harder than it is!),2025,DIY_14152_2269660,00.html (making a chipboard book using padding compound rather than white glue)
tangram puzzle notepad 0,1789,HGTV_3352_1921668,00.html (doesn't work?) ......
pad of dollar bills,,HGTV_3116_1392832,00.html

Cut sheets exactly the same size and shape (or not, if that's an effect you want)... tap them on a table until the side you want gummed is exactly even...
...apply glue to matching end of cardboard or backing
...compress all sheets & dried? backing tightly with a rubber bands over flat wood strips (see just below) or something similar, or under a heavy flat object... place on waxed paper so won't glue notepad to work surface! (be sure to leave access to this area open)
...apply one thin coat of compound or glue to the compressed ends... let dry 10-30 minutes
...then apply second and maybe third coat in the same way, drying in-between... voila!

here's one clamp setup made from two long wood boards .... there's a hole drilled near each end of each board ... a long bolt is slipped though the hole in one board, then the hole in the other board to connect them... then a wing nut is screwed on the bolt underneath to tighen the boards down on the paper eges

uses for pads:
gifts (teachers/memories of the year), Mother's Day, holidays, or any special occasion theme book, recipes book (or multiple copies of recipe for distributing), or recipe cards
...telephone message pads... "thoughts" book... to-do-today pads
...calendars (large or mini)
... "tear-off" info for "for sale" items or bulletin boards
...paper CD sleeves?
...with a "stiff" page or cardstock glued to the back of a pad, a pad could be inserted into a slot of a figure or other background clay sheet (with magnet sheet on back) to act as a pad for the front of the frig. etc. (or just regular post-it pad)
...KIDS, especially:
.......children's artwork...story or progression fo some kind... spelling word list, alphabet or times tables... flip book... summer fun pad (something to do each day)... classroom projects or student photos
more ideas:
...make stiffer front covers (cereal boxes, cardboard, chipboard... decorated or printed, or not)) (...or do them matchbook style)
.......add stiffer backing
...recycle any kind of paper
...make pads from the cheaper, ungummed Post-It type paper squares
...pad of dollar bills to give kids
...old business cards for mini-notepads (themed or not) ... or postcards
...use die cutters or punches for interesting shapes
....add magnet sheet to back
...print multiple copies on printer for more than one recipient, then cut apart



The general idea for making these (Rx or medical, amber or clear bottles) is to soften them into a flattened blob with colorful accents.
.....The colors are achieved by either adding colored crayon slivers (shave the "paperless" crayons with a vegetable peeler, etc.) &/or by adding small, colorful plastic beads (or bits of raw or baked clay, etc. or just anything that can stand the temp. of the oven or will melt in an interesting way).
..15 years ago, most prescription bottles were "clear"...but amber ones should be fine too (but do go for the lightest amber you have)
...Remove any label residue (GooGone or WD40)....thorougly wash & dry
...stand the bottle upright on a non-stick, oven-safe flat pan (or could use aluminum foil?)...then fill each bottle 1/4 full with an assortment of your color filler
...bake (275 degrees or higher?) ...the process happens pretty fast so watch soon as the bottles have become flattened blobs, remove tray from oven (if more softening is needed, quickly return tray to the hot oven)
...avoid overhandling the hot plastic shapes with oven mitts to avoid creating unsightly, raised marks. make hanging holes after cooling... either "melt" a hole using a heated metal skewer, or drill one (create holes from front to back). can speed up the cooling of the plastic blobs by dumping them straight from the oven into a bowl of icy water; this sudden shock of hot to cold also might help to create some unusually curvacious pieces. CraftieCathy
might other clear plastics work for this?.... e.g., the semi-flexible or very flexible drinking cups?

(for covering the bottles with clay --not melting them-- & more on recycling numbers and categories of plastics, see Covering > Plastics > Prescription bottles)

melting colored plastic craft beads (transparent... or some not?)
...Years ago we made a small suncatcher with colored plastic beads melted inside 1 1/4" tall plastic communion cups ("putter" cups) . The kids would put a couple plastic beads in the cup, place on a foil-covered tray, and I would put it in the oven to melt. .... jbud
...more on melting transparent craft beads, etc.,1789,HGTV_3229_3396557,00.html

..beads melted in bottle caps (plastic liner not removed) along with added items that don't melt

plastic worm fishing lures (a thermoplastic plastic?) ...these worms come in loads of colors
.....I read an article in a model railroad magazine about 20 years ago about using plastic worm fishing lures as a casting material
.......he melted the plastic worms in the top of a double boiler
.......then poured it into a mold (don't remember what kind). ...and let it cool until it was solid
.......the final casting was as soft and squiggly as the original worm
...Creepy Crawler sets have metal molds for bugs/worms... and their ilk??
...could also make one's own molds, with plastic insects or other shapes, using a 2-part silicone molding material since silicone takes heat and detail very well

...plastic army men work the same way. As a kid I used to melt them all the time. Seth
...old vinyl records, etc. can be slumped in a low oven over a form, to make "record bowls"
...pre-recorded CD's can be softened, cut and shaped, etc.
(see just below for more)

the Dick Blick catalog used to sell a different kind of "cold" enamel -- it was a plastic powder that you handled like copper enamels (swirling tools, cloissone, etc.) but it melted at light-bulb heat (for little kids)... wonder if that stuff is still made?

(for more meltable plastics esp. for making molds, see Molds > Other Materials for Molds > Reusables like Protoplast, Gelflex, etc.)

slumping & reshaping (& cutting)

Things like vinyl records (albums, etc.), rubbery types of plastic army men or animals, etc. (toys), CDs (pre-recorded only -- like AOL CD's or purchased music CDs), and even toothbrushes? or other kinds of rubbery plastic can be heated just high enough to cause them to soften and slump
... these can be molded or shaped while heating or while still hot... and can also often the be cut
...some may require a higher heat than others, or a longer heating time
....for CD's in particular , see "Ideas" just below
....for toothbrushes (all types or just more rubbery ones?) can just be bent (can remove bristles with pliers first) dip in boiling water)

Good places to find old albums cheaply are thrift stores and yard sales

lessons and examples for vinyl records:
...she also cut another image to glue to the center ...4 fluted areas
red record and a dark red record each made into fluted bowl...both have glittery disks (holographic plastic paper?) covering the centers has glittery silver paint? along the top edge of the record
many links in Google search results for melting+vinyl+record+bowl

basic method for vinyl record albums (...other plastics are probably similar)
( to have several records to learn with first ---don't use a favorite record immediately)
(...wash record and thoroughly dry before heating)
( to bake everything on a baking sheet so it will be easier and safer to remove from oven
(.....also putting aluminum foil undereverything would protect baking sheet and oven from any overheated (melted) vinyl
.....turn oven as low as possible (200° or so)
......another lesson suggests 350 degrees for 45 sec, then flipping over and baking another 45 secs
........(and suggest lightly oiling the first face-down side with peanut butter or oil to keep it from sticking) record on top of an upturned oven-safe bowl or other form (glass, metal, ceramic... but some prefer metal --may release easier?) person likes bowl size of 10" diameter at top, 4-5" at the bottom
.....bake about 5 min to allow slumping
(....if not quite right, put back in oven for 10-15 secs to soften slightly again)
(...if left to cool at this point, it would stay in whatever shapes or folds it has, which may not be interesting)
... remove from oven (with potholders... everything wil be hot!)
.....quickly (within 20-30 sec) shape inside, over, or with other bowls, dowels, etc., (or even hand shape) as it cools
.........can quickly flip bowl over and push record down into it from inside, then manipulate the sides to get it the shape you want.
.........can let cool in a larger bowl if like, so record bottom will end up narrow from the first bowl, but sides can be spread out wider

Or they can be heated flat... then shaped later on a form, or freehand

Some people use a different heat source, like a gas stovetop flame or heat gun, etc.... can work well for heating just one area too.
I held my record about 1' above a gas-stove burner instead of putting the record in the oven
.......I held it by the edges (with what?) .... when the record started to sag in the middle, I put it into a bowl to shape it.
.......if you want to add a decorative edge to the lip, you just have to hold it back over the burner and crimp or trim it, or what have you, but the vinyl cools very quickly so you have to work fast.
...for some, I poured a kettle of boiling water over the edges of the record (which was balanced on a bowl in a sink)... then bent it into shape and left to cool, it seemed to work pretty well.
....some? toothbrushes can be dipped in boiling water, then bent

Records can be reheated over and over briefly to work on again, or completely softened again to begin from scratch

Generally, no release is needed (though some people use peanut butter lightly)
...if you do a lot of records on the same form tho, they may tend to stick... loosen edges by running knitting needle under; reshape if nec.

various temperatures are suggested (from 200-400 degrees), but remember that the hotter temperatures require shorter heating times and definitely the use of gloves
...(some thick, old records are unbreakable vinylite, and will take a few min's longer
...(some really old ones become sticky and wrinkly when heated)


Can add legs by gluing on 3-4 wood balls, marbles, or whatever.. or make holes in top for cording while warm, then hang

flower pot or planter
...hanging planter… first I made marks for the holes on the record to be sure that it would hang evenly
....I used a lighter for a few seconds to soften the vinyl and stabbed it with a knitting needle to make a hole., I heated up the hole I just made, for only a second with the lighter, and shoved an end of a mardi gras bead necklace thru the hole. When the vinyl cools, the bead can't slip thru, if the holes aren't too big that is. It took about 5 minutes to do the whole thing. (author?) frame... Easter basket... "book covers"
...easel (bend just one side up a bit, maybe using a dowel or paper towel tube as a form if nec.)
...I made my trays with Christmas records, so that they can be used with to display any goodies (more on trays below).
...I'm going to try to make a record magazine rack (maybe adding record legs or other kinds of legs).

...for icicle twisties, I cut records into strips on a bandsaw, drilled holes in the top, and hung them from the heating elements in the top of the oven...once they were softened, I grabbed them with pliers at each end and twisted them, then held in position until cool enough to keep their shape.
or just attach to the wall or ceiling, etc (could paint?) DesignerSarah can make boxes out of them if you don't mind cutting them a little
...many ideas for doing similar things with CD's can be inspirational too (see next paragraph)

forms and shapers: a record between two bowls to make a low, flat ruffle-edged tray
....shape one around a tall pot to make a vase.
... pinch one end to make a heart shape
... fold one edge flat on the counter to make a shelf.
...roll edges around a pencil to make an attractive lip
(remember: whatever you shape with must be removable after the record is cool, or you'll need to reheat to separate)

decorate/embellish the inside or outside of bowl with model paints (or other non-acrylic paints?), or in other ways

embed an image into the record by melting one side slightly first

Can use colored records, or records with themes

CDs ...(pre-recorded CD's only? --like AOL or purchased music CDs) work just about the same as doing records, but on a smaller scale thing I did while messing around with them was to fold them over while warm, almost in half.....kinda gave me the idea that they could just about serve as angel wings if attached to a small terra cotta pot angel? Cddesigns
...yep CDs work too… just logged off to try, and it does work. … you need to turn your oven up to about 250-300 or so
....I was just in the dollar store tonight and saw a small bowl that I thought would be great for forming a cd on.. we made change trays for fathers day!!!
(see much more info on heating/softening, cutting and using (and even microwaving) CDs for all kinds of things in Covering > Plastics > CDs )

holes & labels
....coveror plug record's center hole in various ways if want to use as a bowl, or use as planter with hole
...record's label may be considered part of the decoration
.....or center area could be covered over with something else (perhaps a disk of patterned clay), or a photo, another image, or anything

most bowls will have fluted edges ...(some hemispheric bowls are sold on the Internet, but those are molded with an industrial press if they actually started as records)

trays... I melted the 78 record over a rectangular glass casserole dish, giving it a more square shape and a smaller lip.
..did the same to a 45 record with a smaller dish... then I used it downturned as a pedestal, under the upturned 78, for an elevated candy dish. cddesigns

cutting a record:
HEAT…heat in oven at 250 on a cookie sheet for a few minutes … remove and cut with heavy duty kitchen shears or an Exacto?
…I heated the record over an electric burner and then cut the edges with a heavy duty paper trimmer (wear an oven mit when you do this). I heated one edge at a time…. it makes a nice clean edge.
…....I also used some fine sandpaper on the edges to get nice smooth, non-sharp edges. Anu
...could use a hot knife? or hot wire cutter? --ventilate well though when heating to these high temps
...use a band saw …or a large rotary cutter like a quilter's Olfa (tape or clamp down safety…prob. will take several passes?)
...I used a Dremel tool to make holes on the sides and also put in some eyelets. Anu

could cut out parts to make boxes or other origami or bent shapes ...or just cut different shapes to re-shape

cuff bracelets ......& cutting strips
...first mark in pencil the widths you want for your strip (bracelet), and then the length
...pop the record in the oven at about 200 on a cookie sheet until its soft enough to cut, but not floppy
...cut strips & round their corners if you feel so inclined (you may have to put it back in the oven a few times), put the strips into the oven (one at a time is probably best)... they work best when they're floppy
...then wrap the strip around a glass of about the same circumference (filling the glass with warm water makes the vinyl stay pliable longer, but i could just be making that up)
...after you have it close to the size you want, (remove from glass and?) put it back in the oven to soften again
...hold it in shape (making the ends overlap a little if you want) ...and also flatten a bit so its a little more oval-ish
...let cool ...if you're using the label part of the record, might want to seal it so it's protected. mochisaru
(..... for even more cutting ideas, see info on CD's few paragraphs below)


Some plastics will shrink when heated at certain temperatures (actually, they'll return to their original size before they were stretched into sheets)
......the plastic will shrink to approx. 40%-45% of its original size... and will be 1/16" .thick

making a shrink plastic ruler can help with certain projects when you need an exact finished size
...draw a regular ruler in inches on a strip of shrink plastic... mark the brand of plastic and the direction of the cut strip from the sheet (vertical or horizontal)... then shrink

..........various brands shrink a little differently, and they all shrink more in one direction than the other

before adding color, give the surface some tooth by sanding lightly in at least two directions with 320-400 grit sandpaper ... can place plastic on a newspaper or soft surface to keep from gouging (if that tends to happen to you)
....sanding in only one direction will allow inks to "bleed" in those directions

when shrunk, colors applied to shrink plastic will become much more concentrated make drawings or other colorings pale (one reason that chalks and colored pencils work well)... or at least a whole lot lighter than you want in the finished piece)

most art materials like inks, chalks, etc, will be permanent on shrink plastic once it's shrunk
.... but if you want to be sure, seal with an acrylic spray... thinned white glue or ModPoge ... clear acrylic nail polish? Varathane, Future?, embossing powder
... do apply a light spray of acrylic sealer and allow dry before adding any thick finishes though

make any cuts or holes before shrinking !... (it's too thick to cut afterward)
... cut with scissors and decorative-edge scissors, die-cut machines, hole punches

I use a heat gun rather than an oven to shrink all my plastics ...since sometimes in the oven it would not uncurl (but waited long enough??) trashcrafter

shrink plastics can be colored on, stamped on, or drawn on with... colored pencils (and dry watercolor pencils), chalks, inks (esp. permanent and pigment), markers of various kinds, and many other things
....they can even look like clay since they accept Pearl Ex, metallic waxes, stamped relief, etc
....some paints will thicken enough during shrinking to give texture (if not applied thinly enough... can sponge on, etc.) ... metallic acrylic paints look good
.......can also stamp over dried paint (or paints)

(for using shrink plastic in photocopiers and printers, be sure to lighten the image by at least 50% before printing)
photocopiers...hand-feed (be sure to sand the plastic first, though toner may stick anyway?... let dry) ........lighten image at least 50% before printing
inkjet printers ...shrink plastics can have digital images printed onto them with inkjet or bubblejet printers
.....if using an inket printer, you need to use a special shrink plastic made for printers's roughened on one side (frosted)... and possibly also coated with something that helps the water-based ink to stick
............. (or could just sand the surface, and be sure not to smear before shrinking??)

while still hot from the oven, shrink plastics can also be shaped (twisting, curling edges with a pencil, , etc.) or molded in molds ....use pot holders, etc. sincet he plastic is hot!

suppliers & brands
...sheets of this "shrink plastic" can be purchased as various brand names:
ShrinkArt... PolyShrink... ShrinkPlastic... Ultra-Thin by Vesta Abel ... etc.
.....some are even pre-colored or transparent-clear (most are translucent)
.....some of those have preprinted images
....can buy the shrink plastic specifically for inkjets at office supply store or online
.........Shrinky Dinks for Inkjet Printers is one ... with coating
Ultra-Thin shrink plastic, from Vesta Abel (pre-roughened on one side), for punching or layering
OR other plastics found just around the house may work the same way

shrink plastic is very compatible with polymer clay....
...already-shrunk shrink plastics can be baked with polymer clay (the temp. for curing polymer baking won't affect it (275 is lower anyway than the 325-350 required to shrink the plastic ) treat pieces of shrink plastic the same way you would any other addition after baking (unless the piece is mechanically held, pop it off and glue back on).
...or just glue onto baked clay after shrinking with superglue or white glue
...when I use the printer to put a photo image onto shrink plastic , I make the clay item that will have the picture on it first, bake it... and then after I have shrunk the picture, I superglue it onto the baked piece. Just remember when making shrink pictures to be sure that when you print them onto the plastic, to lighten them up a great deal. They need to be PALE. When then shrink, the ink is compressed and everything comes out much dark.'ll need to make a shrink ruler so you can accurately size your graphic to fit the space you want. Dotty in CA (see above)

LESSONS: in general, place s.p. into a 325-350° oven on a sheet of matt board, cardboard, etc., which has been powdered with cornstarch or baby powder (so the plastic can move freely as it shrinks)
.... within 1-3 min, the plastic will curl up & shrink... then it will slowly uncurl back to totally flat

MORE INFO on shrink plastics
:...gen. instructions & photos, ideas & lessons on using shrink plastics with powders and molding, etc. and
....Cloud Nine's many tips on working with shrink plastics ( on Tutorials,
.........or click on any topic on the left side of page)
...Shrinky Dink's various types of shrink plastic... plus lots of info re techniques, inks, etc.

Tina's shrink plastic images stamped with Brilliance inks and colored with chalks, placed on a backing frame of black clay imprinted with a stamp and antiqued with rub-ons and glazed (middle of page)
...*Sally's (edenhound's) beautiful dog portraits on shrink plastic.. embedded and framed with polymer
--First I draw a colored pencil portrait on the rough side of a sheet of shrink plastic (I really like the Prismacolor pencils for this since they have a nice soft lead and the colors come out very rich.)
....Some shrink plastic comes shiny on both sides. If you get this kind you will need to rough up one side with some fine sandpaper.
....The great thing about shrink plastic is that you can trace the major componants of your piece by placing a photo or picture that you want to reproduce under the plastic, and well, tracing. :)
--Once you have the basic outline, then you can go back and fill in the colors and shading as you like.
-- When finished with the drawing I cut it out with a small pair of sissors.
..... Important to remember is that when you shrink the plastic, the colors will become even more saturated and your details finer, so small imperfections in the original are nearly impossible to see once you shrink it.
--Next I shrink the plastic in my oven until I am sure that it is completely shrunk.
... If you don't leave it in long enough, it will shrink a little more when you bake it in the clay and you will end up with a gap between the edges of the plastic and the imprint of where it was originally embedded in the clay. embed the the plastic I use a doubled-up piece of cardstock to evenly impress the plastic in the clay.
..... also if you are not careful, you can smear some pencil lead on to the clay (especially a problem when you are using light colored clay), so I use a different section of the card stock each time I pick it up and press back down.
....also if you are using a clay with a lot of saturated color (like red clay), you could also end up with some of that staining on your art work (now that I have a good brayer I could probably use that instead of the card stock, but haven't tried it yet).
... Once I have the plastic evenly in the clay to my satisfaction, I cut the outside edges of the clay to the desired shape and embellish any way I like.
....Then bake... attach your pin back... and seal. It is really pretty easy, but I made several mistakes before I figured it all out. :) Hope this helps. I would love to see what other people might do with this technique. sally

in addition to jewelry ....embellishments...tops for push pins... permanent labels ...etc.
...or luggage tagsID tags …"business tags" I.D.'s (best with slits to thread onto collar) ... zipper pulls site shows photo images of people printed onto inkjet shrink plastic which are standing in little base-stands (like the foam core ones that photoprocessors do)

of course, you can also embellish with other things after shrinking (using glues like superglue, etc.)

other plastics will also shrink
... from around the house or in various stores...

actually, most of the plastics that make up so many things nowadays (even yogurt containers) might shrink when heated to the correct temp for that plastic
........some people say it must be clear, flexible plastic... and that #6 plastic works (bakery or salad containers, etc.)

(see Covering > Plastics > Recycling Numbers for more on diff. types of plastic)

this lesson suggests using #6. plastic lids... (they color with colored pencils)

When my son was in preschool, the kids made the coolest wind chimes from the rubbery-flexible, or maybe it was the stiffer-but-somewhat-flexible, clear plastic disposable drinking cups ... think it was the former, but can't remember
....they first drew on them with different colors of permanent markers .... then we put them in the oven , on alum. foil?
....they began to shrink pretty quickly (just like "shrink plastic," but we stopped when they were nicely crumpled... the colors became darker and much more saturated!. . . . I was totally fascinated with those!
...they may have been # 1 recycling number plastic (PET) which is common as lids for clear. take-out trays from salad bars, or soda bottles, etc.)
....perhaps these would melt into complete blobs if left in long enough?? Diane B.

empty chip bags (for their logos)... or anything that same material
....can poke a hole through the top before baking, and bake with a tooth pick (or just make the hole bigger to allow for shrinkage)
...these are pretty thick when shrunk...I just used the small bags of Dorito's etc. I guess if I remember correctly, that they would be 1/4" thick... the neat thing was you could still clearly see what they had been. Jen

foams (expanded polystyrene) foam meat and veg. trays ...or cups, etc.
........will these flatten out though (if flat to begin with)?
...hats (or other shapes) can be made by shrinking foam cups in the oven, then embellishing cup upsidedown on cookie sheet... bake in oven at 350, for 1 to 1 1/2 min. (different baking lengths = diff. results)
...scrunched alum foil inside the hat will keep it larger (or in certain areas)...paint with acrylics or other water-based paints before shrinking (or after?),,HGTV_3293_1370963,00.html
......for lesson & more details, see Sculpting-Bodies > Other Accessories, "Not Necessarily All-Polymer"


MARBLES & Clear Pebbles & Ice cubes, etc.
(glass + plastic)

various marbles & pebbles & lenses

Clear glass (or plastic) can be purchased in various shapes which are rounded on top side and flat (and smooth) on the back
...various things can be attached to the back side of these clear shapes... and any doming of the top side will magnify & brighten whatever is underneath

(paper images are often used ...but polymer clay works well too)
....If using a non-clay material for the back (like a paper image), the most commonly used adhesive suggested seems to be E6000-Goop... some have tried GemTac white glue for jewels, but it doesn't seem to be quite as strong ... the E6000 will be squished really thin so that it's totally transparent
(non-clay) "marble" pendants ... the magazine lesson said:
1.Cut out a picture and piece of felt the size of the marble (trace around it)
2. Place some glue on the (flat back side of the) marble, and press your image down on it.
3.Wait for it to dry.....then put some more glue on it, put your eyepin down and then put the felt on it.
4.Wait for them to dry. ........Thread some ribbon through it. MissTee 2

Bags of clear glass "pebble"shapes are the easist to find... they're usually sold at craft stores for putting in the bottom of clear containers to anchor plants, etc.
..... come in different colors, but generally you'll want the clear ones
can sometimes be found in 3 sizes ... those can be found at Jo-Ann's

plastic "pebbles" in various shapes can also be found (self adhesive)

Some of the polymer things which might be put underneath individual clear glass pieces (besides paper-based images) could be:
.....individual cane slices
.... flattened onlays made of clay ...could be squiggles or anything ... or could be Donna Kato's flowers or flower scenes created with very thin individual cane slices (see Canes-Instr. > Overall Techniques > Slice Painting)
........... other tiny scenes (see "Aquarium Beads" below)
....tiny transfer decals (or just paper images)
....real dried flowers, plant mateiral, etc. (see Mixing Media > Fabric > Threads for Alan's plastic discs with flowers embedded for using in centers of his string-art pendants)

Or, multiple glass pebbles could be placed over larger clay patterns or scenes
....seems like using them this way could make great mosaics .... or coasters
....perhaps just covering a whole sheet of patterned clay with pebbles would be interesting

HALF-ROUND-marble shapes (hemispheres) can be used too ...if you can find them
...I ordered the glass ones from this mosaic website: (don't see them now though)
...I glued them to 1/2" round magnets (from Home Depot)... I used a 1/2" hole punch (from Michael's). simone
...Tap Plastics sells acrylic cabochons (clear hemispheres) in widths from 5/16" to 1 1/2".... also have acrylic discs in these sizes... can buy them individually fr. their stores or bags of 100 online (...or look under "Rods,Tubes,Shapes" category at
...Tap Plastics also sells clear " bumpons " made from polyurethane which are adhesive-backed (normally used as feet, stops, spacers, and protectors)... 2 sizes: .085h x .312 and .140h x .500 (don't know if the adhesive affects the clarity though) (look under Rods,Tubes,Shapes > Cast Acrylic Shapes)

more ideas for half-round OR pebbles or disks:
.....i used the gold colored thumbtacks and origami paper, and 1 or 1/2 inch paper cutter (under my half-round marbles). rantipolegirl
.....I glued paper images to the marbles, then glued polymer clay backs with a bead hole to them with superglue so I could string them for a bracelet. alea
.....I buy ring forms for flat marble picture rings at She sends free gifts as well with every purchase (namely, vintage photo collage on a sheet or stickers) and seems to be very reasonably priced. Otherwise, there is always Ebay! Great Ebay store I found ... Rings'n Things. Erin

completely covering glass pebbles.... I needed something to help hold my business cards IN the card displayer during gusts of I went to the dollar store, grabbed a bag of cheapie flat glass pebbles, and completely covered about 5 of them with a clay patterns that matched my card holder (thin, semi-translucent cane slices)...they haven't cracked yet & they're one of the most handled things on my booth
.......folks say they look like cushions and my card holder looks like a couch... (hold cursor over "Custom Orders"). Laurel
(...for making the clay couches & chairs, see Scupting-gen. > Sculpting Other Items)

various small glass shapes which are flat on one side... the only one which is untextured on top though is the star (, moons, flowers, etc.)

(for using actual magnifying lenses or glasses in similar ways, or as temporary reading glasses, etc., see Other Materials > Magnifying Lenses )

" aquarium beads" (clay scenes underneath glass pebbles)
+ more on glass

Skygrazer's various glass cabochons made with glass pebbles --using backings of metallic Premo, gold & silver crackled leaf, rose and leaf cane slices, and a sculpted goldfish)

my aquarium bead with fish and seaweed behind ( magnet on back) (upper right)
Celadonia's framed glass pebbles (onlaid leaves, etc.)... could easily have image behind (attached with thin Goop glue) which would magnify it
Annette’s Fishie Cabs (painting images & using a silver leaf backing with glass pebble) (gone?)
*Anne Klocko's many sea themes, etc. (bas relief) (look around)... these could be flattened further (At the Beach, and Under the Sea)
Christine Albert-Mas (in Jewelry Crafts magazine, August 96) showed some beautiful aquarium beads that looked like like glass lampworked beads. . (see Liquid Clay > Drizzling)

Create a tiny underwater scene out of clay (I made a fish with seaweed behind it) and press on the flat side of the pebble. I used simple blue clay for the background (and pulled it up over toward the front side to finish), but swirled clays or the addition of glitters, leaf or translucents could look really interesting. These can have a loop added at the top for hanging or embedded in other ways to create a frame or hanger.
(....for various ways to simulate tiny ponds with clay fish-seaweed-etc. suspended in resin water see Faux-Many > Water)

The beads themselves were sort of mokume gane - swirls of lightly-colored translucent clay and gold and silver leaf looking like something out of the sea. ....then, you could make an itsy-bitsy seascape - a tiny fish or 2, and some seaweed - on each side of the bead (????), and press the (glass pebble) in, rounded side out, so it keeps the rounded shape of the whole bead. The glass magnifies the seascape.

skygrazer mentions that the metallic clays really zing with the magnification and light-gathering properties of the pebbles

The pebbles can be left as is, have their edges covered with copper tape, UTEE with powders/etc., rope of clay, or set into a base with foil on it, etc.. the flat side may be able to take a stamped image?
...or glued on with liquid clay, superglue, or GemTac (strong white glue)
...skygrazer pulls the clay backing up slightly around the sides of her glass pebbles to adhere them

the center of those pendants is uncolored glass pebbles .... I use the clear as they are the only ones I can get fairly small
..... then I paint their backs with Duncans ceramic pearl or metallic acrylic paint (I tried to bake the paint first, but it bubbled ... now just let the paint dry on the pebble)
.....then place the pebble on my clay (as a background/frame/base)... and on the front I lay surrounding leaves (highlighted with gold) and bake, with no problems. Mary V.

safely removing the gold foil backing from glass gemstones? (have some great cabs, but the foil backing on some of them is chipped, and looks bad). Sharon
.... There are two ways to do this. One is to put the pieces into a jar which has a solution of vinegar and salt. A pint of vinegar to a half cup of salt usually works for me. Put a lid on tight and shake the jar. Let it sit for a few hours, and shake again. Do this for 24 hours. Then rinse and rub at any foil that's left using a towel
....... The second way is to use a mild solution of acid. I can't give you the strength on this as I don't use this method. But a lapidary shop might have the answer. I'm told it's much faster than the above method, but I don't like to fool around with any acid that's stronger than the vinegar. Dotty in CA
...I've used toilet bowl cleaner to remove the silvering or whatever it is called on the back of antique mirrors that have been damaged. Works super fast.---but do use precautions as it is not a substance that you want in contact with skins, eyes, etc. Jeanne
........toilet bowl cleaners have an acid in them. Dotty CA

(for more on glass pebbles and gems, flat glass or acrylic shapes, see Mixing Media)
(for using actual magnifying lenses in similar ways, or as temporary reading glasses, etc., see Other Materials > Magnifying Lenses )

These can also be done with resin instead of a glass pebble or marble
Leslie B's faux metal frame or bezel (containing resin?) over a tiny bird head and photo-text image

(for more on using 2-epoxy resin like this, see Other Materials > Epoxy Resin > Cells)

cracked marbles
("fried marbles" --an old Brownie-Girl Scout project)

Rapid change in temperature will make thicker glass crack internally along stress fractures... can look quite beautiful !
... find marbles in toy stores, hobby stores, flea markets . . .also works with glass pebbles from craft store
...the cracks stay inside the marble and crack "inward"...however, some marbles will break, so do more than you need
...don't use extreme heat or they will shatter.... heated too long, they may fall apart in the water
........wearing safety glasses during the process is prob.a good idea, but most people didn't
........any broken marbles will have very sharp edges. ... handle very carefully... they can even break later, or if stressed?
HEATING (several options):
...OVEN.... (15-25 min., at 250-275 degrees, till heated through) ... use a baking pan with lip or cake pan, etc. (don't use it again in case any glass slivers get left behind... or line with aluminum foil); one person does 200 marbles at a time this way (or can use a coffee can and then pour the cold water directly in the coffee can)
...STOVETOP...heat in a cast iron skillet or frying pan or even a metal pot? over high heat for several minutes (no oil), rolling them around until a bit of water dropped in pan evaporates instantly...then heat 1 more min. ...a lid should stay on in case they pop too fast?
ICE BATH...use a slotted spoon to take the marbles from the hot water (or unslotted for oven method) and quickly plunge them into ice water (more ice than water because the heat from the marbles will reduce the water temperature...using a large volume of ice-water is good or change water/add ice) . .
CRACKING...wait 15 minutes before handling (that's when most cracking happens although may hear more cracking for a wk) . . once dry, the cracks will be more visible
MICROWAVE method (no ice-water) ... put marbles in a towel and microwave for 2-3 min.... heats them from the inside out, so when they begin to cool they will crack on their own. .. can help them by tapping with a hammer.
FREEZE FIRST method... froze them overnight.... then put them into an empty coffee can and poured the boiling water on them. They cracked that way too! Shaylee
....To attach things to the marbles or to attach them together, use a clear glue that adheres well to glass (Duco Cement, Bond 257 a glue for gems ... 2 hours to dry, 24 hrs to fully cure.)

This way takes a bit longer but the final outcome is worth it ...I had found that when I took the marbles out of the frying pan then just dropped them all into ice water, they did not crack very much next time, I took them out one by one... slowly dropped them onto a wooden spoon containing a bit of the ice water ...and they all cracked like crazy (they sizzled and cracked, and some even made a bit of steam when the hot marble hit the cold water). cyansoma maybe another thing to consider is the size and shape of the pan you're doing the cooling in (as well as the total amount of ice water) ... in other words, the pan needs to be large enough (and shallow enough?) to not crowd the marbles too much when they're put in, so the water can stay really cold?? Diane B.

SOME USES for cracked marbles, etc.:
...small figures & animals (snowman,Santa Claus,cat,turtle, mouse-rabbit with tail & whiskers, facial features from felt, wiggle eyes)
...onlay embellishment...glue to picture frames, flowerpots, vases, lampshades, etc.
...all kinds of jewelry (in the 70's, some were wrapped with wire cages) . . . or in clear vases for plants
...let light shine through...glue around outside of glass candle holders or votives... can leave spaces in polymer clay coverings on votives or glass balls for cracked pebbles
...mosiacs from round glass marble halves....boil marbles in water for 15 minutes, then toss in ice...some will split in half

Nix Creations' wire-wrapped "antique" crackled marbles

ice cubes ...& misc clear shapes
(glass + plastic)

glass or acrylic ice cubes ... may have flat surfaces or irregular surfaces
...can be embellished with clay or with other media
...can make a snowman from 2-3 stacked together ...or just one cube could be used to make a head (embellished), then used as is for ornament/etc., or put onto a clay body... the glass cubes can be held together mechanically with clay (scarf, etc.) then baked, or other cube(s) could be glued on after baking, or baked embellishments could be glued on (E6000)
....I gave mine a hat, scarf, and pom poms with wire connector for ear muffs...I also made some with top hats, cane, and painted vest ... some are standing juggling snow balls (glued to hands and arch with wire) Very cute. Gayle
....I also added small candy canes for skis. Eleanore .... I glued the bottom cube to a wooden tile. farmerswife
.. figures could be standing or sitting on ice cubes, or in other ways interacting with a cube(s)
... I made boots from clay and also flowers for head and body is stryrofoam balls...nurseray
...You may also want to try the colored plastic "ice cubes" with water in them that you freeze and can reuse (also come in balls or festive theme shapes)...of course you will see the water stuff inside, but I like the little water movement in them. Nancy (for clay, those couldn't be baked)
...various snowpeople, angels, etc. made from cubes ... some use smaller block for head... one has "gloves" at ends of wire? arms which stick out from between the head and body cubes (keep clicking on others)
SOURCES: ones are often found in bags of 8 at craft stores (esp. Joanns, Michaels), dollar stores at Christmas time, floral or candle supply, etc. Michaels, whenever their marbles are on sale for 88 cents, so are the cubes... they're in a clear plastic rectangle box about 5"usually for 2.99 I collected a lot since last year. Gayle
......I got mine at Joann's in the flower pot area near the those flat marbles. They were 2.49.
......many people got them at Dollar Tree 10 for $1.00 , but our store said they wouldn't be putting that stuff out till the end of Oct. Crissy-pa.
......some people have said that Bed Bath and Beyond had them too. Lique.
:......18-count bag is $1.98 ......
..There are some acrylic ice cubes around too *(bakable, I think), but may be more expensive ...acrylic can be found in various sizes and shapes as well
....can be mail ordered through Michaels?-- sku # 8 3438900374 7 ... item # is 315216 D3 (acrylic or glass?)
....(some of the acrylic ice "cubes" aren't really cube-shaped, but instead resemble partly melted ice cubes and are various amorphous shapes... could be fun for some things though)
...there are also the various-size smooth acrylic cubes from a plastics store, but the sides are flat,don't have the slight distortion of the "ice cubes":
(other acrylic shapes:

...on surface of water or soaps... or with other materails

....many of these methods could probably be used on polymer clay
...could use as backgrounds or as focal areas, etc.
...could also dab a bit of metallic paint on a paper towel randomly across the colored surface, for more interest and complexity

SHAVING FOAM ... using inks, or food coloring, or (thinned?) acrylic paints (may not work as well, or let sit longer)
....I’ve made marbelized paper (or cardstock or papier mache boxes, etc.) using the cheapest brand of aerosol shaving cream and dropping ink on the shave cream, then run skewer thru to make your design. Simple but it worked beautifully and inexpensively. Ruth

….do not use glossy paper –too slippery… bet it would work if done quickly on tissue paper
….you can use re-inkers or food colors. I have used both.
….I have also used the Pearlescent liquid acrylics I bought at Michaels in the section where they sell the pens
….I just let the shave cream dry on the paper, and then brush off any residue when dry.  ettabee ruth
Dee Gruenig’s lesson on using Posh Inkabilities Inks and good quality shaving cream to make marbled backgrounds on coated cardstock for greeting cards,,HGTV_3352_1887931,00.html
...Gwen Gibson uses Barbasol (a cheap one) and puts the ink? on polymer beads
...Spray shaving cream into shallow baking pan. Spread it until it evenly covers the bottom. It does not have to be completely even or flat. 2. Add drops of food colouring and fluff it up (spread it around with a spatula, etc.) ...lay the cardstock sheet flat onto the shaving cream and push it down until all of the paper is in contact ...remove and allow to dry 7-10 min. face up... wipe off with paper towel in one direction until all the shaving cream is gone. candycanechild
..I used gel shaving cream and just worked with it till it was foamy before adding color (it was pink until I got it foamy, then white)
.....resist-batik technique ....draw on the paper first with a colorless crayon or white candle before pressing to the cream?... would need to iron the wax off afterward?
... Another thing I did was after the shaving cream dried and I wiped off the excess, I used Elmer's glue to write on it. After it dried I carefully peeled it off and the writing was white.

SOAP & WATER -- bubble painting ...using food coloring
4 small containers & trays, food coloring, soap bubble solution (Dawn + glycerin?) and wands, white paper, paper plates,
...fill each of 4 small containers with bubbles... add food coloring to each container (1 green, 1 yellow, 1 red, 1 blue) …. best to let this stand over night....then either dip the wand into any container and blow bubbles on a tray, or blow directly onto a paper plate, or white paper…press the paper over blown bubbles.
...we mixed liquid soap, water and food coloring together in small bowls. Then we took straws and blew bubbles into the soap untill the bubbles were above the rim of the bowl, then we placed our paper on the bubbles. You get marbled or tye-dyed circles on the card!  angipants

OIL, VINEGAR, WATER.. with food coloring (and hard-boiled eggs, in this case)
...combine equal parts (1 T, e.g.) of food coloring, oil, and vinegar in small bowl... mix... add water till deep enough to cover an egg ... comb or swirl the colors...dip egg in one movement & remove... gently pat excess water from egg
...repeat with other colors if desired
...can rub a bit of oil on the egg for a satiny, slightly glossy finish
...can also draw or
write on egg with a light colored crayon before coloring to act as a resist

WATER and/or STARCH .... using sidewalk chalks
....scrape the chalk over a pan of water with a dull knife or a grater... then scrape a couple more colors...swirl if needed ...gently lay on a piece of cardstock, middle first... dunk completely?... remove and let dry ... to keep the chalk in place, spray with hair spray or clear acrylic
liquid starch poured into a cake pan and colored chalk... can be thinned with water if desired.

STARCH (and water?) ... using acrylic paints
... pour liquid starch about an inch thick
...add enough water to each acrylic paint to make it runny (kids' sets of diff. colors work well)
....pour a few colors across the starch....swirl ...lay the paper on the surface... don't dunk... remove and let dry.
(when paint is too sparse, add more but will eventually be too muddy or brown ... start again with new colors
...lesson on making and combing
3 parts paint to 1 part water
...leave paper on water 18 sec... carefully lift out and place on a vat of warm water for 20 sec to remove the starch.

GELATIN (unflavored) ... using oil paints (& turpentine)
..dissolve 8 packets of gelatin into 1 pint of boiling water ... pour into shallow pan ... add (how much?) cold water.... mix oil paints with a bit of turpentine to the consistency of thick cream.... drop a few drops into solution in pan to test consistency
............(if color sinks, it's too thick... if it spreads too much it is too thin)
...when mixed up just right, drop in large spots with spoon or stick... swirl
....hold opposite corners of brown paper (same size as pan) and lower into solution... remove and dry.. (clean pan with turpentine) (also many recipes)

WATER ... using oil-based paint --liquid or spray paint ...(on ornament)
Straw or heavy wire
... fill pan or bucket halfway with water.... using one or two oil-based paints (or spray paint that's not water soluble), put several drops of each color (or spray) onto the water. ... swirl ...dip (a paper ornament)on a long wire into the water ...swirl around to pick up colors...dry

Suminagashi --a water print technique that uses floating ink

SPECIAL LIQUID MEDIUMS ...there are also many ways to float inks, etc., on a liquid surface for excellent results, but they call for special materials (like carrageenan or methylcellulose or size) and may require overnight for the liquids to set up.

(NO floating --direct application to paper --combed "Paste Papers")
... using acrylic paints (& metallic powders) (overnight set-up) .... beautiful effects can be achieved
...for slurry (stock) : mix 1 cup cornstarch into 1 cup cold water
(...this makes a lot, so may want to use half amts. of cornstarch & water but still full amt. of glycerin)
...boil 6 cups of water... turn heat down, and slowly whisk in slurry ..remove from heat & keep stirring till smooth
...whisk in 2 tablespoons glycerine (to give shine), and cover with waxed paper... let sit out overnight
...color ....
may want to use only one color though because a two-tone pattern will result when paper is combed or scraped (which results in the paper showing through a bit to create a lighter version of the paint)
...pour 3 oz into paper cup ... add 2 tablespoons of acrylic paint (can add Pearl Ex also, if desired)... mix
...using a painting sponge on a stick, dip into one color and sponge/brush onto paper
.........can begin with stripes of colors ... or pull combs through it (straight or waves or zig zags) ... or "draw" with thin flat piece of cardstock or plastic (ribbon-type squiggle lines or small diamond or square shapes).
........can also brush a stamp with the liquid, then stamp/smush it back and forth slightly on painted paper (clean the stamp with water quickly) ..Nancy H.

other materials, etc.

thinned acrylic paints can be combed, swirled or otherwise created in interesting patterns (then allowed to dry)
.......the resulting sheets of pattern could be created on a removable surface (glass, freezer paper, silicone sheet, etc) then attached to other surfaces, including clay (with white glue, acrylic paint, liquid clay etc. depending on surface)
......or the paints could be swirled directly on a permanent surface like clay
....Rorschach "ink blot" patterns would be cool too if the paint were pressed inside a folded sheet of freezer paper or even raw clay?, then opened out)
Jana Ewy's lesson on pressing thinned acrylic paints between 2 sheets of freezer paper (coated sides in) after laying on stripes of various colors to create "faux "vinyl"... she places second sheet on the painted first sheet, pressing paint outward toward edges before removing top sheet and allowing to dry... she uses to cover boxes (with spray adhesive),,hgtv_3289_1376364,00.html
...or perhaps liquid clay could be treated the same way as above, on permanent or removable surfaces

(cold enamels) can get lovely feathered, marbled and swirled effects by dropping different colors and drawing a needle through when still wet. Sue
....(for more on cold enamels, see Other Materials)

( .... for more ways to create "marbled" swirls with liquid clays, also see Liquid Clay > "Marbelized--combed, dragged patterns"...)

(for more on adding metallic powders to liquid clay , drizzling, etc, see above in Drizzling and Inclusions .)
(for more re laminating, decoupaging, or incorporating paper into/onto clay with liquid clay, see in Mixing Media > Paper, & Stamps also

(dragged line patterns can also be created with regular colored solid clays ... for those, see Sheets > Marbeled-Dragged lines)


For magnets and using magnet sheeting, see Other Materials > Magnets

There is a special hot cutter for cutting all kind of foams which is great! In fact, you can make one if you're handy. All it is actually is a thin strong wire strung tightly across a U shaped metal rod (on one long side), which is attached to chamber that holds two D batteries. When you make the connection between the metal bottom of the chamber and the battery end, the wire heats up and cuts through the stuff just like butter. You can even cut all kinds of curlicues and precise things (as long as you don't need to cut any farther in than about 6 inches from *any* side... opposite side of frame won't allow it). That way you also don't have the "snow storm" from all the tiny bits of foam when cutting certain types of foam (even with a serrated knife, which is definitely best, I agree), and the hot wire leaves an extremely smooth surface wherever it cuts... plus it's FAST. I think I got mine at D & J Hobby here in California for about $20? I don't use it often, but when I do it's the *perfect* tool for the job and is fun to use. Diane B.

NoraJean's various Egyptian theme polymer projects, etc.... and Japanese projects and
Donna W's lion- table (two lion heads, 2 upraised tails, 4 lion legs and feet, Egyptian)

many Egyptian items and furniture for inspiration (do not click on Yes or OK in any of pop-up windows.... click on No or X... after several pop-ups, you'll get in)

Joey's lesson on cutting 20" tin flashing (from the hardware store) to make whimsical-women figures (or any shapes)
... she cuts the flashing with scissors(??), sands edges with fine sandpaper, degreases with alcohol
....then she spray paints with a white outdoor paint as a primer, draws the facial features with an ultrafine-point permanent marker, and colors with thick acrylic paints using med. and fine acrylic brushes (...rubberstamping can be done over paint to resemble patterned fabric)
... she glues real fabric to some parts with tacky glue ... then embellishes with other media (feather boa, fabric scraps, sequins, glitter, flowers, ribbon, etc.)
...tin shapes could be used as armatures for covering with polymer clay also,1789,HGTV_3242_2810621,00.html

lots of recipes for clays, doughs, inks, glues, etc.
(DB: add the others here)


There are a number of ways to get your photos online:

1. ..."photo-sharing" websites are created specifically to display photos in a simple format; some may allow captions underneath, and most a place for visitors to leave messages; some of these are free (but usually come with banner ads) or have a small yearly fee
2....some internet service providers offer a certain amount of free web space to their customers
3.....Yahoo members can store unlimited number of photos at a private page Yahoo (you're already a member of Yahoo if you read a yahoogroup via e-mail, or use YahooMessenger, etc.)
4.....blogs ...most offer space for photos within a blog (Google's offers unlimited photos, others may by now too)
5.....some mailing lists (like Yahoogroups) offer some space for photos of their group... but anyone can create a small group
6. ...your own websiteusing a free or small-fee special website which acts as an intermediary and allows others to create websites on their space
7. ...most expensive way...create your own website on your own domain... you'll pay yearly for the domain name, and monthly for a "host" to support it, but it's totally yours
.........(if you choose the domain option, you can either write your own HTML for the site, or you can purchase website creation software to help you to do it without the HTML).

(...see more about these options below)

& photo-editing

NOTE: on the Photography page, there's much more info about:

1. photoediting options --resize photos, lighten/color/constrast/crop, special effects, creating avatars (free, online + other)
( > Photoediting )

digital cameras and scanners (tips on photographing with)
( > Digital Cameras and Scanning )

If you want to post photos online (anywhere), you'll first need to make sure they're in digital form.
...Images already in your computer (from a digital camera or scanner, or having been copied from the web) will be digitized already, but otherwise you'll need to digitize them by scanning, or using a digital camera.
...Often the image will be too large and/or have too high a resolution for the web to display easily, so you may need to also re-size the image smaller.
...The image will usually often need to be in jpg format (or png, gif, bmp) rather than the default file type for a scanner or digital camera.
...Some photoeditors also
"optimize photos for the web" by doing all those things and also using certain types of compresssion for the highest quality final image.

Also, digital camera images and scanned images and copied images aren't usually uploaded directly to the web because (as well as being too large and not the right resolution) they may also have too much or little contrast, too much or too little color saturation, need cropping, etc. (a mediocre image can be radically improved and optimized with photo-editing)
.......Since computer monitors are unable to reproduce high quality images anyway, 72-144 dpi (dots per inch) works well for most images put on the web.
(Keep in mind als
o that the larger the file size of the image, the longer it will take to download when someone tries to view your page).

There are various ways one can do photo-editing to prepare images for the web.
...some photoediting software may even have come free with one's scanner or computer.
...photoediting can also be done on the web (resizing, and some offer much more)
...and some photoeditors are downloadable free from the web software can also be purchased

WEBSITES for Sharing your Photos (& Videos)

"photo-sharing" websites (...image-hosting sites)
free... (but any "premium" plans not free)

NOTE that some of these sites now offer video clips as well, and there are also many video-only sharing sites

NOTE: there is a distinction between photosharing sites which allow "direct linking," and those that don't allow it.
..Direct linking photosharing sites have gained popularity primarily since blogs, social networking sites, and auction sites have come on the scene, if you participate in auctions like eBay, or have a blog or social networking site to upload your photos to, you might want to use one of the "direct linking" photo-sharing sites (or perhaps if you'd like to keep a custom graphic signature or avatar somewhere to use on forums, etc.).

helpful info from :

"Direct Linking" is a term referring to when a web page of one website owner is linking directly to the images or other multimedia files on the web host of another website owner (...not .simply linking to a web page on their server which loads the image).
....If direct linking is done to an image at a site (not your own) without permission, it is stealing bandwidth and is also known as "hotlinking", "bandwidth theft", and "leeching"
..........however, the term ("hotlinking?") is also used loosely (a misnomer) by some people and sometimes by free image hosts (like those below) which allow you to store images on their server and do allow you to direct link the hosted image files at forums or other websites (sometimes altering the image to have a watermark).
....The bad type of hotlinking though not only causes the other person to pay for the bandwidth of the hotlinked file, but often is also
intellectual property theft.

....One of the most common occurrences of "hot linking" is when people are forum posting, and they hotlink pictures from another website to use as avatars or signature images on the messageboards (forums).
...Some disadvantages of hot linking worth considering are that the webpage generally loads slower when you link to images stored on a different web hosting server than the webpage is hosted on
...... also, the owner of the image has full control to disable hotlinking, or delete, rename, or worse yet, do a "switcheroo" (i.e., switching the file name to be another image which is sure to cause the hotlinker embarrassment) of the hot-linked image. (Common methods of preventing hotlinking are by using an .htaccess file, using the "Hotlink Protection" offered in control panels such as Cpanel, or simply renaming image files periodically.)

allow direct linking

(all free)

NOTE: these sites vary in what they offer ... e.g., vary in size or type of files you can MB allowed....size images will be displayed... how much bandwidth allowed (per day?) for others viewing your images... how soon images may be deleted if ever (for inactivity) ...whether registration (account) is required, or can be anonymous... have watermarks ...where they links be placed, including sometimes not at "large-scale, non-forum websites"... management of images... titles/captions... use of thumbnails... editing or resizing capabilities.... whether they're affiliated or suggested by various auction sites, etc... whether they're served by Linux or not... how many ads are visible, etc.

...each of these services will give you one or more links you can use for embedding your images at other sites (after you've uploaded them to the service)
..... just copy whichever link you want to use, then paste it in the new site

To see many free image hosting services which allow remote hosting (some also offer additional auction services and tools such as free auction templates), and reviews of them, go to:
...(compliled by
(first few in list may be Sponsors of the site, and therefore placed ahead of the others regardless of their ratings) on each to see a page where the reviews are given

FAQ's acct...up to 1 GB of space for images + video clips (being purchased by MySpace?)
(videos must be 5 min. or less, 100 MB or less file size --also offers Adobe Premiere Express, a web-based video Remix and editing application)
......bandwidth = up to 25 GB of traffic monthly --bandwidth reset every calendar month (or about 400,000 viewings per month for a 60 kb photo)
.....can link photos to eBay, MySpace, message boards, blogs, (and online photo albums?) larger than 1 MB are automatically scaled down ... supports webtv
......the Search feature works only for words in titles of photos (not album, subalbum, or member names) see all albums by any user, do a Search for their user name...but when results come up saying there are no results, just above will say click here if you want to view that person's album (!)
...... titles for photos = 250 max. letters*... but only 12 letters visible except in full view (*can use MS Word > Tools > Word Count to get # of characters)
..... no spaces or special characters (except a hyphen & underscore?) are allowed in one's acct name, subalbum names, or photos' file names (because they will be part of the URL's) ... but okay in photo titles
......large motion ads to right of photos on free accts sometimes... can stop blinking, etc, by clicking on Stop in browser bar (small red X, in IE, or sometimes Esc key) may be deleted if acct. not accessed every 90 days
...Pro account = $25/year or $9/ 3 mos... up to 5 GB space for images and video clips... unlimited bandwidth... .no ads...up to 2MB or 2240x1680 pixels image size uploads... videos 10 min each....others can use video or images? for mashups .. no passworded (private) subalbums at this point?..currently being worked on…10% off all Photobucket Goods

Flikr ... FAQ's
...basically ad-free ....simple uploading tool... no videos ...owned by Yahoo
...Flickr is oriented more toward photo sharing and socializing than photo-hosting sites like Photobucket, etc.
.......this is probably one reason why the number of photos actually displayed in your list is 200 or fewer (for free accts), though actual urls to the other photos will work
....can't link photos to eBay, MySpace, message boards and online photo albums. ... though can link to blogs?
....monthly upload limit = 100 MB (5 MB per photo) per calendar month (a bandwidth limit, and not an amount of space that you have on Flickr servers??) ...ther's no limit on specificaly how many images you want to upload as long as under 100 MB/mo
...."Flickr has no restrictions on download bandwidth" (number of views?)
.....only the smaller (resized) images accessible for free accts --though the originals are saved in case you upgrade later account
photos may be deleted if acct. not accessed every 90 days
.....good methods of organizing photos (in sets, but limited for free accts.... can apply tags to individual images)
.....can resize the uploaded versions (can select from various sizes of photo for linking), except as above
....... grab a thumbnail square -- small, medium, large & original of an image-- in either HTML or the direct link for bulletin board code (click all sizes above an image). purpleheather
.......If you click on the pic itself, and then click "all sizes," under the photo should be two options for posting on other websites. One is "grab the url" (easier), and the other is "copy & paste HTML into webpage" (like for blogging). slackferno
... resizing for thumbnails easy (still allows someone to click through to get to the original image). purpleheather
...sharing public photos...set up your own Flickr web address (like then share it
... ...or send individual photos to people, either as attachments to an email, or by sending them a link to a page on Flickr
....sharing private photos
...they also have craft and other "communities" or you can create one... comments also allowed on photos
Pro account = $25/ year (unlimited upload, bandwidth, etc not deleted)...

Multiply..., videos
...also offers a blog and calender... place for music, recipes, reviews (books, electronics, music, etc.), and a "market" (your things, For Sale or Wanted)
...has contacts, comments, inbox, "Live Replies"
...has photo albums...some customization possible
...can make images high resolution... have magnification... can tag images
...alerts people when you add somethng (can specify though which groups can and can't see)
...set up the "home page" first (nice graphical interface), then add stuff
...can order prints, etc.
...may not be used in connection with any commercial endeavor (selling... though "Marketplace" area okay?) organizations or businesses may become members... only individuals
fee-based subscription = $__?

ImageShack "albums"... just single photos
...unlimited space allowed
...bandwidth allowed... "each image is allowed 100 MB of transfer per hour (if more, will be inaccessible temporarily)... (that's about 1,800,000 viewings per month for a 60 kb photo?)
..... "In order to prevent inaccessible images, please utilize the clickable thumbnail function as often as possible, instead of hotlinking full-size images (..clickable thumbnails are generally small in size and do not use as much bandwidth as large images)"
...........however, viewers will be able to click on the thumbnails in order to see the large images
...images never deleted (unless you post objectionable material, copyrighted material, etc.)
......."private" photos are "unguess-able" ...send URL-thumbnail only to those you want to view it
...will resize your pic if you want
...max of 30 characters allowed for file names (limited to: 1234567890 and qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm ) punc.?
...powered by Linux-dedicated server network ... lots of people like this one ... (no videos)
..registration not required
..... but if you do register (free, & they won't "share" your info with spammers), there are benefits: can "keep track" of all the images and photoblogs uploaded via Image Panel (otherwise must keep the URL's or won't be able to access)...can track image uploads, see previously uploaded images (including date), generate code for images, and delete and undelete images
......( can "lose" the urls of your photos if you're not registered though)
... + get image code faster... + upload batch multiple images, with ability to resize them upon upload
........I downloaded the imageshack toolbar and all I have to do is select as many pictures as I want, right click and choose "upload images to imageshack" and voila! never have to type in (or browse through folders there) ever again!

AllYouCanUpload (through CNET's Webshots, but not regular Webshots--see just below)
... "albums"... just single photos? ... no registration required
....unlimited storage/photos ...unlimited bandwidth limitations....unlimited image size you can upload "at this time"(.... images not resized unless you request it
... when using use the uploading tool, will be shown the image along with codes to post the photo on sites like Myspace, ebay and others ads on the uploading areas of the site (are ads on the hosted part of the site which you see if you click on a hosted image). will never be deleted (unless they violate guidelines--copyrighted material or p*rn, etc)
...once you upload an image, the only way to see it again (or send it) is to save the url that's given to you for that image
....... (but, if you want to keep a reference to the urls and have all your photos to show up in albums -- as a folder in your own "personal homepage -- then register at Webshots to get a free Webshot account --but no direct linking there-- what are Webshots' other rules though??)

Webshots --CNET
...(free for 10 albums, 24 photos each... now says 1000 photos?)
...can put photos in forums, blogs ("Embed Links") ...order prints & gifts
...I've noticed that the free version has blinking ads, especially when viewing the first few pages
... it may also take longer to upload photos to free accounts
...may not be able to opt out of certain e-mail advertising?
........make sure that you have your browser set to accept Webshot cookie
(example: Denise: )
...premium acct + $30 /yr for 5,000 high-resolution photos, in 150 albums
...(also a "community" for polymer clay?...Community > Entertainment > Polymer Clay Jewelry & Misc)

tinypic ... registration required ... linux based. . . photos or video
...each picture will be deleted from our servers after 10,000 hits or 30 days of inactivity (no hits), whichever comes first. You can always re-upload the picture if you'd like.... cannot delete oneself though
...owned and operated by Photobucket (?) ... unlimited storage... 10-min. videos too (free?)
...can be organized into albums
...must upload or buy something from the site every 365 days, or acct will be deleted (they send a warning e-mail first)
....don't allow direct linking?... "they don't give you a handy tag for putting images elsewhere, so just right click "Copy image location," and paste that between HTML "image" brackets --[img] and [/img] --it works nicely"

more free sites that allow direct linking (esp. for auctions) and have "albums" ....freepichosting. com ....freepicturehost

Pbase longer free (except for free 30 day trial) ......$23 /yr = 500 MB
....albums allowed (but how much text for individual photos?) ... direct linking now allowed

Picturetrail longer free (except for limited-time free basic acct with 36 photos) .... $20 /yr = 50 MB storage
...long list of photos on left side in each album (rather than photos in a grid) ... enlargements of ea. appear on right linking now allowed
...(example: Flo:

don't allow direct linking (?)

...some of these do seem to be able to be browsed by category (Epson, Webshots, e.g.), but can't find a way to browse some others
(....some of this type of photosharing site seem to have access restricted to members only, or be difficult to access without tweaking your security filters though? such as hobbystage and imagestation)

Epson (can't get in to check any new details)
(example: Teri Persing:

Fokti ...
....I've heard Chris Perillo from TechTv mention .. I think the site looks good. Kay ... free or fee
... 50 MB ... number of folder and subfolder levels unlimited?
...premium acct = $30-50
(example: Susan: )


Google Page Creator? (beta)... need G-Mail acct

While we do have a limit set on (bandwidth) we are not at liberty to disclose the amount at this time.
If you exceed the bandwidth limit on your site, please know that your site will come back as soon as your site's traffic has fallen below our set amount. Please keep in mind that Google Page Creator is still in Labs and we are continuing to look for ways to improve the service and appreciate your feedback.

...100 MB limit for total uploads


through Google
Google account* required, or set one up

Picasa Web Albums
on one's computer + online... with a few options for sharing?

(*You may already have a Google account if you've used Gmail, GoogleGroups, Google Alerts, or Froogle Shopping List)

...To put photos at Picasa Web Albums, you must have a Google account and sign up for Picasa Web Albums
...Visitors who wish to view your (or any) photos at Picasa Web Albums must know the URL of the photo, an album or the entire gallery of the person who has the photos there (there is no "home page" for all of the Picasa Web Albums that I can find)
....... and they do not have to have a Google account
...To search Picasa Web Albums for particular topics or tags, one must have a Google account?... or can anyone just search from this page:
Community Photos: Search the photos of any Picasa Web Albums user who has marked albums as public and searchable.
The Public Search feature lets Picasa Web Albums users (or the owners) find public photos on Picasa Web Albums

FAQ's Picasa Web Albums
FAQ's Picasa

Picasa (Google’s free desktop photo management software) allows one to:
...organize and edit the photos on one's computer... add captions, etc.
...send a link to a photo, an album or an entire online gallery to someone, via e-mail
...more easily add photos to Picasa Web Albums

To add photos to Picasa Web Albums, you can: and use free Picasa software , then use its "Web Album" button to upload entire albums (and even videos --max file size 100MB--ea?)
...or use your normal web browser from (sign-in page)
...or use a Mac computer

(from Terms of Service.... "Google may at any time, disable your access to Picasa Web Albums if:
(a) there is a period of inactivity in your account for 6 months or longer . . . couldn't find any more info on this though)

each account has 1 GB free storage (even more may be coming) are automatically resized and optimized for display size... photos can be edited in various ways
...Blogger-Picasa WebAlbums connection:
.......any photos you put at your (Google's) Blogger blog will be counted against your 1 GB free storage at Picasa WebAlbums
...When you use Blogger, a web album of any photos is also created in Picasa Web Albums.
...Any photos you upload using Blogger automatically appear in an unlisted album (you can make it public later if you want) under “My Photos” with a small Blogger icon in the corner of the album cover.
...The title of your Blogger web album will match the title of that blog. If you re-title your blog, the web album title will not change.
....if you delete your G-mail? (or other Google acct.?) user name, you will also delete your Picasa username therefore you deleting all the data under that username.
.....If you delete a photo from Blogger it will also be deleted from Picasa Web Albums. Likewise, if you delete a photo from your Blogger album on Picasa Web Albums, the photo will also be deleted from your blog.
...Once a photo is posted to Blogger from Picasa Web Albums, future comments or captions made on either site will not be synched with each other... they recommend adding captions and comments in Picasa Web Albums before posting a photo to Blogger.

(you cannot upload photos directly to a Blogger web album using the Picasa Web Albums site at this time).

... can pay for even more (6.25 GB = $25/yr, etc.)

...can add captions (or automatically add ones from Picasa if you're using it)
...viewers can leave comments ...can make albums private
...sign up for the required "invitation" using a Gmail username (but anyone may view photos online)
...must download latest version of Picasa (with web uploading)
...250 MB free storage (approx.1000 wallpaper-sized photos --1600 pixels each)
...additional $25.00 per year = additional 6GB of storage (approx.25,000 photos) ads
...can choose small, med or large sizes for preview photos!
...actual photos are quite large when displayed ... quality very good
...can add captions (but don't show up in "Slide Shows")
...can zoom in for a closer look (poster or viewer?--viewer can zoom in to middle of shot only?)
...can add links to other photos (at Picasa or anywhere?) with "My Favorites"
...can receive and post comments (optional?)
...URL for your public gallery will be based on Gmail username (
...other Picasa users can download images (if you allow it) into their own Picasa libraries...or you can download (others' photos?) from Picasa to your computer(?)
...can keep any albums private, but no passwords (tip: give private albums unusual names so no one can guess them)
(tip: full length vertical shots may have captions off screen at bottom... can be annoying for viewers if there are many)

through Yahoo membership
(going out of business Sept. 2007)

If you are a member of Yahoo (likely if you belong to any yahoogroup mailing list), you have an unlimited amount of free space to keep photos online:
..but currently, little text is allowed (very short title + 120 char's for description)
..can make your photos public for anyone to access, restrict access to a other specific Yahoo users, or keep those photos totally private so only you can access them (for prviate albums, must use their e-mail "invitation" to allow viewers in, and they must be at their e-mail addresses to view?... same with private albums at other sites?).
...can specify if you do not want others to order prints (from Yahoo) of photos that you have let them access, by editing your Preferences. direct linking allowed ...also may not use primarily for commercial purposes, or have primarily promotional and advertising materials or any other form of solicitation in the albums
...after 6 months of inactivity (not signing in), all photos will be deleted (unless you choose a premium version of the service) and (for more info) sure to check-mark options in Marketing Preferences to limit their ability to "share" your info with marketers (if you want to avoid marketing spam)


free .......or "premium" plans

One other rapidly-evolving possibility might be a "blog" for storing photos with captions (or as much text as you want).
......"blogs" are often oriented toward "community" so one can have "friends," and/or visitors can subscribe to your blog, and visitors can leave comments for any of the entries (though blog owner has control over that)

Each blog site is set up a little differently, but generally the photos can with:
....with a direct url (often called a "permalink")
... by date... or in other ways (like "Previous Posts" at Google's Blogger) after they scroll off the front page as more photos are put up.

SOME COMMON BLOGS (free ...for some, can also pay for more storage or benefits)
Blogger (by Google, at BlogSpot) .... photo storage = 300 MB....unlimited blog entries (though size limit for any individual page = I MB)
....can create categories-tags ("labels") for sidebarm but can order only alphabetically or by frequency of use
....(not deleted if acct. inactive)

.....NOTE: ...Blogger-Picasa WebAlbums connection:
...........When you use Blogger, a web album of any photos is also created in Picasa Web Albums.
...........any photos you upload using Blogger automatically appear in an unlisted album (you can make it public later if you want) under “My Photos” with a small Blogger icon in the corner of the album cover.
..........any photos you put at your (Google's) Blogger blog will be counted against your 1 GB free storage at Picasa WebAlbums (see more about this connection above under Picasa)
WordPress photos ("and other files"?) = currently limited to 50 MB
..........can buy more space tho... 1GB ($18/yr) ...5GB ($50) ...10GB
...can create categories & sub-categories and put in any order... photos & video... "group" blogs
.......LiveJournal ...
.......Windows Live Space

MOST INFO ABOUT BLOGS is in Groups-Online > Blogs

...(I created a blog a while back at several of the blog sites to try them out and be able to post photos, but I've been too busy to use them much..... here's my blog at Blogger though with photos of a kitty litter set-up I was trying to describe to my sister:
... there are various page looks-formats one can select though
...I noticed that MySpace now also allows one to create albums of up to 300 photos

mailing lists (Yahoogroups)

Yahoogroup "e-mailing list" groups usually have Photos and Files sections at their sites, where members of that group can post a certain number of photos for free (viewing is restricted to members of the group only however)
...anyone can set up a private group, however (so you'll find families, members of particular projects, classrooms, etc., in addition to larger interest groups)
...if just now joining Yahoo, be sure to check-mark options in Marketing Preferences to limit their ability to "share" your info with marketers (if you want to avoid marketing spam)

through your ISP

Most internet service providers (including AOL) ...(their website name will be the first part of the URL)
...for example: Judith's Skinner's site
...You may have a nice amount of personal webspace (5-10 MB depending on the ISP) but actually using it effectively to host a lot of photos takes a bit of work, learning, a computer and a software tool or two, if they don't provide it. . . . you will need to learn how to log into your webspace on your ISP's server, upload and download the photo files that've you've first created, edited, and corrected on your own computer. Desiree
... My ISP offers 50MB for each user. That's where my website is. . . . Perhaps you can get one of those free website builders and then transfer it to your allotted spot. You'll have to use FTP, but most ISP's have a point and click version. There are also good free FTP utilities. Sooz
(...see also #5 Using Your own Website for "URL Forwarding")
...If your server supports PHP, look at installing a copy of "Gallery" - it's great, allows comments and you can use HTML in the description ( if you
want to put a link to your PayPal shopping cart or something...) Barbara FL

special websites which give you a personal "website"
(photos, or anything you want) ....they act as its host
(some free, some not)

(these offer various plans, at diff. rates, with diff. capabilities)

There are a lot of sites where you can create your own "website" very easily. You don't need to know any HTML. You just follow simple directions and before you know it your site is up and running. Dotty in CA
....When I created my site on Tripod I was not concerned about having my site come up on google and yahoo-type search engines, etc.. I really only created my PC site for "show and tell" purposes, and I also list my site on my business cards for prospective clients and friends to see more samples of my work (If I wanted to go into a website-based business full time, I suppose I would have to get a domain name and all that.).
..........My Tripod site is entirely free and I can also create more sites.
..............However, I did opt to pay and extra $4.95 a month to remove banner ads since one of my sites is for my young music students. . .
..........I have found that uploading and placing items on my Tripod pages is pretty quick using the easy-to-use "site builder" and template format.( I do, however, have high-speed internet access and my computer is fast.)
..........As far as megabytes available to me, I had a lot before I started paying the $4.95 a month, and now I have even more..... I still have A LOT of space left. I've even got graphics uploaded to tripod that I'm not even using at the moment, including seasonal graphics that I change around ...
.........I can maintain it easily myself and it's cheap! So, I highly recommend it. Meredith
........My sites are: and
....I've used Homestead for the past three years. They were free for the first two years but now charge $10/mo. ...I have the least expensive (Silver "personal" website) which gives me ten web pages. I've only used one....(they also have other "professional" website options if you want to sell or need more). . . . You download their program to your computer, easily design your site, then just push a button and "publish" it to the web space they provide. My website isn't a commercial one and it's not all that fancy, but it only took two hours to set up. I go in now and then and make changes, additions, etc., and that's it.
You can see it at: Dotty in CA
...........Homestead's various plans, capabilities, etc.:
....I use for the (PCPolyzine) ezine and LOVE them. I have the biggest package they offer and it's just $14.95/month. Easy to use -- great statistics reporting -- fabulous customer service. Jeannie
...I'm using Yahoo as a web host. It costs just about $20 per month and they have their own "site builder" program to download. They have pages already set up (to get you started) or you can completely design your own page. It's a very easy program. No special computer knowledge needed. Directions are very well written. Now, if I can just manage to get mine finished! Judi W.

your own real website ("domain")
not free (unless you already have one)

One example is, though examples of private domain sites with more photos on them would be ones like Sarajane Helm's or Desiree McCrorey's: ..... ......(prices vary for domain registration, and especially for monthly hosting)'ll need to register a domain name first (for example --a name which no one else has yet claimed; I think we originally paid around $35 per year when we registered, but now much cheaper (...note that the totally free registrars usually put loads of advertising on your site)..... do be careful NOT to sign up with a registrar service which just "rents" the name to you (that may not be obvious however!).
..... After registering a domain name, you'll need to select a web host to actually provide the service of getting visitors back and forth to your domain-website.
(....for info on obtaining a domain and a web host, see Business > Your Own Website)

Anoter suggestion is to use a domain registrar which offers URL forwarding.
..What this means is that you register your domain, but then use the control panel at the registrar to "point" it to your free ISP space (so when someone types in, it takes you to ....You only want to do this when you want the very cheapest option. Laurel

your own "domain" vs. other types of websites

However, if you're interested in being accessible to search engines, or want to have a "professional" look to your site, you'll prob. want to choose your own domain. DB
.....The major search engines no longer index sites on free hosts (or picture sharing sites), which means developing a "web presence" will be a lot more difficult using a Tripod or the "multi-hosting" solutions (they won't "kick out" already indexed sites, but are not including "new" sites on these types of hosts.) . . . . Plus, it will take you 10x as long to update a site that utilizes a "site builder". . . . . So if you subscribe to the "time is $" theory, free hosts & picture sharing sites are actually a more expensive option than having your own domain at a host . . . .The very cheapest way to host a web site is to use a registrar w/ free "URL forwarding" and have your domain name point to your I SP-provided bit of space, but again you will not achieve as high rankings in the search engines. Search engines like domain names and individual IP addresses. . . . Bottom line--you can register a domain and have someone host it for less than $75/year. Laurel
....... I suppose it comes down to how you want to use your site . . .. Meredith
....On websites, I've found that the more simple, the better (the bells and whistles can be cool, but some people actually get annoyed by them) ...I opted for simple and have received several compliments on the easy navigation, clear photos, quick loading, etc.
......... Keep your photo file sizes small so that the pictures will load quickly even for those of us who live out in the boonies and don't have access to DSL or cable
....... Double-check all your links before "going live"
....... Also, double check your codes, or check your site from a computer other than the one it was created on to make sure all your photos load (if your coding accidentally points to your local drive and you check from YOUR computer, everything will seem to display properly, but the photos won't load from another computer.)
...... Also before submitting to search engines or making a formal announcement of your site, have friends/family go through your site for typos, broken links, etc.(sometimes after working on something for HOURS, it all becomes one big blur & you'll overlook little things) Lynette

misc. info

This site rates the various photo-sharing sites that are out there, with information about each site. Betty
...Dave Dyer's Guide to Online Photo Albums (an Andromeda Software page)
--it also has created a sample page for many of the rated sites which are helpful in comparing them.

(One of the categories on Dave's page is called Free Sites, and has a link leading to the Tripod/Lycos free site, plus a sample of what Albumatic can do --see below.)

One of the interesting things Dave recommends a free downloadable software program called Albumatic, which can be used with any of the free sites (such as Tripod), or your own website, to create a photo album setup :
"I found a nifty free program called Albumatic that makes it really easy to create an "album" web site using any of these free services, or for that matter any web space you happen to have access to. Albumatic automates the process of importing a batch of photos into an album, making thumbnails, adding captions, and exporting the whole shebang to the web site.."
.....Albumatic software can create a grid of photos either vertically (2 across) so that the album photos will remain and the clicked-on one will show as enlargement on the right (more like PictureTrail), or in more of a grid pattern so that each photo will replace that screen with an enlargement (more like Photopoint).

MEN in Polymer Clay

I call them our "Hunks of Clay"! Donna Kato

polyzine article about men in pc, by Dan Cormier

Mike Buesseler (click on Miscellany)
City Zen Cane (Steven Ford and David Forlano)
Jamey D. Allen
Dan Cormier
Will Truchon
Jeffrey Dever
Tom Plattenberger
James Lehman
Grant Diffendaffer
Johnny Kuborssy
Paulo Guimaraes, Brazil (has a new site?)
Bob Wiley (FimoBob)
Jon Stuart Anderson,
Alan Vernall, UK
Charles Mayer OH
Tommie Howell
Robert Houghtaling (sp?)
Dominic Zinanni (Chicago)
Wayne (the Dane) Hansen
Garie Sim
Dinko Tilov
Boris Tilov &
Lanin Thomasma - Temperance, MI ('N'Toonz) (
Lysle Jr. (under construction)
Joshua Burkhardt, age 15

Ron Lehockey... Louisville, PCP. beautiful work! He has a gorgeous rock purse ...BDRAI
Jack Schwend
Dave Skarkow (sp?)
Alan Davis - Toledo, Ohio (
John Bucklew - Manfield, Ohio - he works with his wife, Kay
Tommy and Jim (trina)
Skye Renfro (ClayFactory?)
Bill Gerard (sp?)
Irwin Walkenfeld and Curtis Freed in NJ
Bernie Gutstadt... NJ

George Carruth (works mostly in stone)

Gremlins in the Garage (webzine)





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PATTERN & DESIGN (new page)

write more summary? . . . .

An endless number of designs and patterns can be created using one or more "basic" elements.
A chosen "basic element" can be repeated and/or reoriented for use as is, or it can be used as a unit which can then be repeated and/or reoriented to create a pattern (..or it can be combined with one or more other units first.

P.S. Some of the terminology about pattern and design varies a lot, especially between subject areas (e.g., math, needlepoint or quilting design, music, etc.), so I'll try to use the principle terms as much as possible:
...basic element (motif)
...unit (module)

"modularity in art" through the ages, cultures and disciplines ....Slavik Jablan's fascinating (but somewhat esoteric) samples & discussion .
. . . (quilters and caners may be especially interested) (then click on everything!)

"In a general sense, this modularity principle is a manifestation of the universal Principle of Economy seen in nature: the possibility for diversity and variability of structures resulting from some (finite and very restricted) set of basic elements by their recombinations.
... the most important step is the first choice (recognition or discovery) of basic elements (this could be shown by examples from ornamental art, where some elements originating from Paleolithic or Neolithic art are present till now, as a kind of "ornamental archetypes").
....In many cases, the derivation of discrete modular structures is based on symmetry .... the theory of symmetry and its generalizations (simple and multiple antisymmetry, colored symmetry...)" . . . S.Jablan

some names and examples of many types of pattern (on buttons, but not restricted to)

Basic ELEMENTS of pattern

one way of creating basic elements & combining them

Adolfo Best-Maugard described seven basic shapes forming a basic "alphabet" for creating an infinite number of geometric designs, or objects and humans/animals)...he says these motifs have been used throughout the history of art and can be traced back to the earliest carved and painted designs known (these are not the only ones that were used, but they seem to be the most common --the seven referred to are actually derived from two shapes--the curved and the straight line.) (halfway down page)
...his book describing these and how to use them (A Method for Creative Design, Dover...1983 & 1990 are the later editions) is out of print, but may be available at a library, or online through or Blackwell's US, etc..

basic motifs:
.... spiral, circle (or dot), half-circle, S, wavy line, zigzag line, straight line
(these can be combined in many ways of course ... even a square or triangle would be composed of straight lines, e.g.)

repetitions: many or few, various spacings, etc.

positions for motifs to follow:
.....straight line designs... linear, border patterns (horizontal, vertical, diagonal-left or diagonal-right)
.....grid designs: diaper patterns (horizontal, vertical or diagonal)

For his system, he also suggests these "rules":
...never cross lines, or allow one line to interfere with another (--these rules may be broken though ... e.g., crossed lines may create a checkerboard, or a line or motif may bisect another (or series of motifs), or any pattern)
...motifs can grow (increase or decrease from one end to the other --e.g., leaves on stem becoming smaller toward end)


SYMMETRY (balance, repetition, rhythm. .. vs. variety..., )


SYMMETRICAL & kaleidoscope

~(Dave Edwards) . . . The technique in the plastic arts of using symmetry to achieve appealing or esthetically useful effects is an old one; the ancient Egyptians and Romans used it (Roche N, The New Clay).  With polymer clay, I called a method of slicing a ball of mixed colors of clay in half and using the cut edges to form a symmetrical design the "Rorshach Technique," after the psychological test].  Jamey Allen carried this further, forming canes that were sliced across their axes and reassembled, so that slices produced symmetric designs of considerable complexity; he called these "geometric canes," if I recall.
  Similar and closely related polymer clay techniques have commonly been used, as in Lindly Haunani's leaf canes, City Zen Cane's superb butterflies, and the intricate mosaic designs of Pier Voulkos.  Recently Natasha Flechsig described a Rorshach variation that exploits another orthogonal plane; she called this "The Magic Bead," although it is commonly discussed and described on the Internet as the "Natasha bead."  Beads so constructed preserve symmetry over their entire surface, and they can be quite appealing.


(see below in Repetition-Geometric for creating patterns with grids and 8 basic variation possibilities ...tiles ... not nec. symmetrical...
...lot of overlap with symmetry creation)

Pippa Drew's? wonderful pages on symmetry, mandalas, tessellations, etc.
(click on pattern examples at bottom: "Home work for 3- and 6-fold symmetry designs")
(lots of info on symmetry & tessellations)

.....for the math of Seminole symmetry see

(I hope I've got this right...a math major should explain this! --yeah, I finally found one who did, and supplemented my info below! see website above)

Technically, I guess there are several types of "symmetry"

Reflection occurs when an image/motif is placed next to it's flip-flopped self (as if one placed a mirror against the edge of the image).
Rotation occurs when an image turns, is repeated around a fixed point (e.g., like pie slices in a pie, for example).
Translation - one image unit moves up or down, left or right or diagonally, while keeping the same orientation
Glide reflection - the image translates and reflects
(see website above for example of each)

Great fun can be had with these concepts! . . .and very complex-looking canes can be made without too much trouble or skill.

Most any cane can be re-combined using reflection. So for example, the cat cane from above could be cut in half and rejoined so that the patterns are mirror images (one cane length will need to be reversed). This example doesn't result in anything very new. But especially when geometric patterns are used, their cane edges can combine in unexpected ways and give a very complex-appearing new pattern (providing a border hasn't been used around the original cane!-- this will interrupt that part of the effect). (This new cane can be cut and recombined further for tinier, even more complex patterns).

(Natasha Beads --see Beads (for the Natasha beads sub-category)-- are an example of reflection, but no further combinations are possible because the originating "cane" or blob of scrap clay isn't the same throughout its length.)
....Natasha slices could also be used to make leaves ... see "Leaves" below for details.

A cane can be rotated only, as well. This would be the same as placing triangular pie slices next to each other into a round pie shape. So after a single cane is cut into (3 or more) lengths (of triangular log), the segments can be placed side by side in a radial pattern (for example, 8 equal spokes of pattern if using 8 lengths).

Often a cane is first reflected by cutting in half & rejoining, then rotated. In the case above, there would be only four lengths to rotate now (instead of 8) because the original cane had been reflected into a new pattern unit first.

The original cane may be a single shape (e.g., a spiral) or it may be composed of a number of canes which have been put together in a triangular shape (e.g., a spiral, a checkerboard, a distorted bullseye, and a flower cane, all together). If the combined cane is not created triangular, it may be pressed into that shape though that may distort the original shapes a bit.
(see Kris Richards' lesson below in Square/Rectangular)

Six to eight (or more) triangular segments will result in a hexagonal or octagonal outer shape (which can be rolled to round if desired). These are more often referred to as "kaleidoscope canes" since they resemble the images seen in a kaleidoscope viewer.

Diamonds are just two triangles, short sides together, so they can be placed radially, but this will create a pointed outer edge, starlike--could be filled in though). Irregular triangles can also be placed together, but again the outer edge will be uneven (see Quilts below for Dresden Plate possibilities).

There are several kinds of what people have referred to as "kaleidoscope" canes. ...I put them all under "symmetry" and then try to define the types from there.
So, for example, you might begin with an existing cane (usually a geometric one) which you might shape into a triangle or square cane if it weren't in that shape already, or you might begin with any cane which you build yourself (like Kris Richards'). Then you would stretch this cane out longer, cut 2 or more lengths from it, and recombine the lengths side by side --so that at least 2 of the edges match (mirror symmetry).
"Kaleidoscope" canes are usually the ones in which the length units are put together like pieces in a pie, radiating out from the center. If only 4 pieces are used, the triangle units have to be right triangles like Kris' and kind of "fat". . . but if 6, 8, or more triangle units are used they will be longer and more slender (like pizza slices), and the resulting outside shape of the cane will be hexagonal or octagonal unless it's rounded off by rolling.
The most common combinations are four, six, or eight lengths, but any way they will go together is fine. In Kris' case, 4 lengths are used, and she tries to build her cane in a triangle shape from the beginning.
.... And if you don't already know about them and like that symmetrical, complex look, go here and investigate "Natasha beads" as well: Diane B.
more info and lessons below, under Other Shapes
It's very helpful to be able to preview the different orientations that are possible with these symmetrical canes. I use a small rectangle of mylar which I've creased in half (holding the crease next to one of the points). This will show 4 radial repetitions of the pattern. I also tried using 2 very small mirror pieces connected with tape (try to avoid any non-mirror area in the corner.) (It can be better to place the mirrors actually on the cane to prevent gaps --don't forget that you can always use just a part of the cane if it looks better to you.)
If the mylar or mirrors are able to fold together tighter than 90 degrees, you can often see the pattern repeated 6 times.

design previewer tool for geometric canes (Alan Vernall):
I make geometric pattern canes using either extruded square rods or reduced blended canes.. . .I ve designed a preview aid which may be of use to others.
The gadget is simply a square of thin steel sheet, painted matt white, with a grid drawn on it in fine marker pen - my grid is 8x8, but obviously any reasonable size can be made, dependent on the complexity of your canes.
I then obtained some magnetic printer paper (from a stationery supplier --most large printer sundries places should stock it -
mine was in packs of 5 sheets of A4 size paper made by a company called Page in the UK) , and I cut it into strips, whose width was slightly less than the squares of the grid. I painted the strips in various colours and cut them into small squares. I made about 25 squares of each of eight colours. Then the squares can be placed on the grid and the proposed cane can be designed. (Obviously, if one hasn't access to magnetic strip etc, the grid and squares may be made from paper or card - but beware of draughts!) As an extra aid, I cut some squares of plastic mirror which can be placed upright alongside the grid to show what a times 4 cane will look like. (The mirror was backed with polystyrene sheet and after several deep scorings on the back of it with a craft knife using a steel rule as a guide, it parted neatly along the scores when bent gently.) (or temp. at my photosite: (website gone))
Kim use a bathroom mirror and another free mirror to create her 90 degree previewer
(website gone)

I'm fascinated with kaleidoscopes and my talent with design is still somewhat undeveloped so I went looking for a program that could create computer generated kaleidoscopic images. I thought it would be a great way to create designs for canes. . . . a little program called "The Silicone Mirror And Kaleidoscope" (This software breaks down the kaleidoscope design to very finite elements...Maria ). It takes any image on your computer and lets you view any part of it as a kaleidoscopic design and then allows you to save the image. It's a freebie program, but it will time out after a bit, or pay $12.00 for it. . ....And best of all. it's really easy to use.I'm one of the least computer literate people on the planet and I was saving images in less time than it took to download the program. . . . Don't know when I've had so much fun at so little cost. I think I've used it to look at every graphic on my machine and then downloaded maybe a hundred more. Glenn

many kaleidoscope patterns on beads, from PCC's 1997 swap

patterns from inside REAL kaleidoscopes for inspiration (clickable images) (configurations)

very sophisticated circle patterns, Islamic symmetry

snowflakes (great inspiration for any "kaleidoscoped" canes too) (look around, in Galleries too) (click on each)


... also kaleidoscopes, mandalas and dreamcatchers (any number of repeats more than 3)
(dreamcatchers are mandalas in which an odd number of evenly spaced points is placed on the circumference of a circle...then each of these points is connected to each of the others by a line... ...when worked in cording however, the connecting lines won't remain straight)

INTERLOCKING REPEATED patterns (tessellations.....)

(much of Symmetry above applies to this also)

Tiled and mirrored pieces sounds like the output from my "silicon mirror" program (a gadget that operates like the mirrors inside a kaleidoscope) from ...they're still selling the current version for $ of the best deals I ever got. You can do some amazing things with it as far as cane designs. Carolyn


Design elements can be placed in various ways: random, diaper, repeat or linear.

A "diaper" is the kind of repeat where the repeated units share common boundaries.
...tessellations ...use the same principles as repeat patterns, but the edges are exposed rather than hidden.
...these can be created with paper and drawing utensils, etc. (sometimes graph paper & ruler added), or on a computer
...Diaper patterns are units pattern which, when repeated at least 3 or 4 times, form an overall pattern with strong diagonals in both directions.. . . ...cotton diapers used to be made from a fabric called "birds-eye." It had a special weave which made a diaper pattern. I suppose people began to associate the word for the type of pattern with the garment (twill is another example of this) and thus "diaper" as a word for undergarments was born. . .

Diaper pattern ...An allover pattern with motifs placed in a repeated design, esp. on a rectangular or diagonal grid.
.....secondary definition: a diamond-shaped pattern (in weaving, etc.... or of brick across a facade, usually seen in Jacobethan or Tudor Revival buildings).

.......Symmetry Works plug in (can buy or check out motifs & repetitions)
....see also stuff from Lysle --where????

...there are many examples in history that show geometric diaper patterns (elaborate Egyptian diapers often have symbols of the mysteries of nature and religion like the lotus, scarab, etc. ....France
...and they are used in many arenas: weaving, needlepoint, painting (on ceramics, etc.), sculpture, architecture, fabric/textiles of many kinds, rugs, wallpaper, wrapping paper, borders, "textures" which are really repeats,
...plant forms have always been some of the most used, as well as geometrics

grids & diapers ...overall patterns, interlocking patterns
...What is a diaper? (definitions: and info by Kandace Merric)
...(Fine Arts) Surface decoration of any sort which consists of the constant repetition of one or more simple figures or units of design evenly spaced.
...the name given to a textile fabric, formerly of a rich and costly nature with embroidered ornament, but now of linen or cottOn, with a simple woven pattern; and particularly restricted to small napkins. In architecture, the term diaper is given to any small pattern of a conventional nature repeated continuously and uniformly over a surface; the designs may be purely geometrical, or based ....In its textile use, the term diaper was originally applied to silk patterns of a geometrical pattern; it is now almost exclusively used for diamond patterns made from linen or cotton yarns.

....a quick answer is a grid in which a repeating pattern is created. . . .Diapers can be very complex but once you understand the 8 basics, you have a foundation to build any repeating pattern on.
... I do not know of any consumer software that has a preset library of diapers. I use Adobe Illustrator CS (or 10) for my pattern and texture creation. I have
created my own libray of diapers to use...Illustrator is a great programe to use because one can take advantage of its ablity to create repeating pattern tiles.. ...My class at EOPC04' is going to cover the basics of pattern will be designing patterns and textures using the computer as a tool. and will cover imaging the designs you create for use with any number of techniques (including photopolymer plates). Seth Savarick
...I tripped and stumbled through the process (of learning about this), knowing there was a method to the madness of interlocking patterns. I drew on square sheets of paper wrapped around cardboard tubes, beginning in the center and then turning the sheets 90 degrees as the pattern approached each terminus. It drove me nuts until I began to SEE what was going on.. . . As I learned to used the drawing tools on the computer, I applied many of the same techniques by using mirror and flip and a diapered layer drawn in red, but an actual course would have made all the difference. Oh, the time and paper I wasted! Katherine Dewey


...101 uses in art and life of symmetry & tessellations

rotation.... a vertex is the point at which (3 or more individual) lines come together (e.g., on graph paper, they would be the corners of squares or rectangles) ....the line segments between the vertices ... can use a guides for rotation symmetry

Escher interlocking tiling info & simple lesson
seeing two types of tessellation patterns created on screen (requires Flash)
Tessellations have practical applications in many realms, from art and architecture to science, technology, and production. In design and architecture, tessellation refers to the paving of walls, floors, or other surfaces with a pattern of small tiles (tesserae) made of ceramics, glass, metal leaf, stone, or other materials. These tesserae normally are cut into geometric shapes that fit together perfectly in either simple or complex designs in a seemingly infinite pattern. This is an ancient technique that today you can see in buildings and wall murals in Greece, Italy, Turkey, India, and many other countries. Tessellations are particularly prominent in Islamic art, which forbids representational images of God; therefore, its designs concentrate on the abstraction forms with a mathematical underlining. Although tesserae often consist of abstract shapes, primarily symmetrical rectangles, hexagons, octagons, and other polygons, they also can consist of figurative elements, as in the work of artists like Kolomon Moser (1868-1918) and M.C. Escher (1898-1972). Escher is famed for his tessellations composed of horses, butterflies, birds, and imaginary creatures (which in the 1990s formed the basis of a popular line of upholstery fabrics!). Many of his designs "morph" different shapes, such as hexagons evolving into creatures. Many contemporary artists apply tessellations in their work. These designs, which often contain representational elements, are often called diaper designs. Although often considered an art or design application, tessellations can be found in nature, as in the patterns of snowflakes and in honeycombs. Scientists have determined that beehives are composed of hexagons because that is the most efficient shape for bees to build in.
...In mathematics, tessellation refers to the study of "tiling" or how regular shapes can be placed to fill an infinite space with no gaps and no overlapping shapes. This is a mathematical discipline which has been evolving since the early 17th century and formally recognized in the 19th century. Tessellations can be divided into several categories: regular, semi-regular, replicating, 3-D, and non-periodic
...Only three types of regular tessellations exist: triangles, squares, and hexagons. These shapes by themselves can fill a surface because their interior angles are exact divisors of 360°. Of these shapes, only the squares line up with one another.

Many contemporary artists apply tessellations in their work. These designs, which often contain representational elements, are often called diaper designs.

There are only four basic operations that bring about an unending variety of symmetric patterns:
1. rotation: a turn of a figure or design around a specific point and specific angle
....... 4 types/angles: ...180° (1/2-turn )...120° (1/3-turn) ...90° (1/4-turn) ....60° (1/6-turn)
........if a pattern element is rotated and also repeated radially, "spokes" of pattern could appear: 180° (2 spokes) ...120° (3) ...90°(4) ....60°(6)
2. translation: a simple shift or slide (vertically, horizontally, diagonally, etc.)
3. reflection: mirror image, flip
4. glide-reflection: reflection + translation

retrograde – a reflection through a vertical line of the original tone row

Symmetry operations What do we mean when we say that something is symmetric? Do we mean that it is balanced? or proportional? or even? ... or perhaps something else? There are many ways of describing symmetry, thus many types of symmetry. One way to "test" for symmetry is to perform certain operations on an object and see how the object changes. Three common symmetry operations are reflection, rotation, and translation. Reflection When you look at the object's reflection in the mirror, does it change? Try it with a triangle, your signature, your hand, and your face. Rotation When you rotate the object, does it change? A good way to test this is to have two copies of the object. Rotate one and see if (or when) it is identical to the other one. (Try drawing the object on a transparency, or on paper that you hold up to a window. If you can lay them one on top of the other, and all the lines match, you know they are the "same".) Try it with a triangle, your hand (or a tracing of it), a square, a circle, a squiggle. Translation Beginning with two copies of the object that are superimposed (one on top of the other), can you glide or slide one of them (without rotating or reflecting) and have it land in a new place where all the lines of the objects still match?

"symmetry groups". . . the 17 patterns or configurations composed of combinations of the square, triangle and hexagon have been worked out by mathematicians ... these are also called "wallpaper groups."
some wallpaper examples of units and diapers? (look around)

For many actual wallpaper patterns, translations are the only trasformations that leave the pattern invariant. One of the translation directions is vertical, up and down the wallpaper strip. Usually, horizontal transations are not invariant on commercial wallpaper. Instead, the pattern is raised or lowered on adjacent wallpaper strips.

Powdering is yet another repeat structure (Figure 14). It is an old term for the uniform, overall spotting of a surface. Polka dots are a form of powdering; but other motifs, such as flowers, crosses, and stars, can be scattered on a surface. Care must be taken to keep the repeat uniform. Much of the area around powdered patterns is unembellished. (They could form a diaper if the produced visual diagonals in both directions.)

make sure that there are at least three or four repeats of the pattern in order to see the pattern

The block construction is the most fundamental of the repeat structures The block can be mirrored or rotated which helps to give movement
The half-drop repeat, made by dropping each unit halfway down the next unit, is another repeat structure. Quarter drops and other fractional drops can create other gradual or steeply stepped effects. Drops can be used to create strong one-way diagonals, diapers, or a random appearance. Notice that mirror images of such repeats can produce zigzag or wavy effects.


books on repeat patterns (& diaper patterns)
Design Your Own Repeat Patterns: A Quick & Easy Approach (Dover)... V. Ann Waterman
Allover Patterns for Designers and Craftsmen (Dover) ...Clarence P. Hornung
Repeat Patterns . . . Peter Phillips and Gilliam Bunce
Pattern Design: An Introduction to the Study of Formal Ornament (Dover) ... Archibald H.
Pattern Design ...Lewis F. Day
The Pleasures of Pattern... William Justema
The Principles of Pattern for Craftsmen and Designers .. Richard M. Proctor
Designs and Patterns From Historic Ornament (Dover)
... W. and G.Audsley
Diaper Patterns ...Nancy Noland Kotten
...(plus numerous other books on diaper patterns in needlepoint, embroidery, e.g.
An Analysis of Diaper Patterns and Their Specific Use in Canvas Embroidery...Ann Strite-Kurz
Exploring Pattern in Stitches ...
Mary Shipp )